Dachshund description and photos of the breed, characteristics

Такса
Photo: Dachshund

Dachshund is the most attractive, unusual and common breed of dogs that belongs to the hunting species. Fashion exists on dogs, and it is also capricious and fickle, but as for the dachshund, in this case it does not disappear from the list of the most fashionable pets for the 2nd century. Among its admirers and "admirers" there are both lovers of hunting, and those who have no idea that the dachshunds have unsurpassed hunting abilities, opportunities and talents. But than this small creature could so conquer the hearts of dog breeders?

Dachshund is the smartest and funny pet

Tendency to training
Mind
Moulting
Watchtower qualities
Security features
Popularity
The size
Agility
Attitudes towards children

The Dachshund is an unusually intelligent dog, with an easygoing and calm character, but at the same time, it has a sense of dignity, which she proudly carries throughout her life. She has the most expressive eyes, in which one can simultaneously see great curiosity, a desire to know the world around him, and also friendliness. Despite the fact that at first glance the dachshund looks like a proud being incapable of playfulness and fervor, in reality she is very emotional and has a peculiar sense of humor. What is just her unusual appearance: an amusing elongated body and short limbs in the ensemble create a rather comic and kind image. And her face is like a caricature of a human face. She is able to express numerous emotions and temperament, which is simply impossible not to fall in love.

Dachshund likes to communicate with people around her and other animals. She will never give up the opportunity to contact a person, but only with the permission of her master. This dog is very devoted to those who love and care for her.

Common features of the breed and character

Такса
Photo: Dachshund

Nature dachshunds every minute exudes energy, activity, great friendliness and curiosity. She is passionate, cunning and tireless. Legend has it that dachshunds are very stubborn creatures. This is partly true. But their stubbornness is none other than the consequence of its unrivaled intelligence, independence. This stubborn line is laid in them by the very "Mother Nature." After all, when they are in a hole, one on one with a badger or a fox, then they can not wait for help from a person, so you have to rely only on your own strength. At this moment, the dachshund should think things over in such a way that the badger does not have the opportunity to leave the hole until the hunter digs up and does not reach the prey. Therefore, obstinacy can be called an inalienable quality, without which the rate can not be imagined.

This breed of dogs is very prudent and prudent. She will never rush to carry out the command of the owner, without considering her correctness. At this point, it seems that it gives the owner time to rethink and think about the correctness of his decision. But if the thoughts and intentions of the pet and its owner coincide, it will obey unquestioningly and rush to the execution of any team without regard. The dachshund needs a good and intelligent host, and only with this she will become responsive and obedient.

Такса
Photo: Dachshund

The dachshund is very intelligent, she does not need to repeat something many times. She is also unpretentious in care and maintenance. A huge merit to this is its cleanliness. She can take care of herself on her own, but the extra care has not prevented anyone.

The modern hunting dachshund is very smart and enduring. If we talk about its direct purpose - hunting - then here its main quality becomes aggressiveness to mining. Despite its small size and bizarre shapes, this is a vivid example of a true brave hunter. Their courage allows them to rush into battle with the enemy, which is several times their size, for example, with a wild boar. But their main "field of activity" is the normal hunting for foxes and badgers. The easiest thing for a dachshund is hunting a raccoon dog. And in the case of the fox, the courage and excitement of the dachshund there is no limit. For her, this is an exemplary action, because a fox is practically the same size with this dog, and the fight will be on an equal footing.

Despite its aggressiveness towards production, the dachshund is able to control its emotions, be careful and cautious, soberly assessing the situation and its capabilities. Her "crown number" and distinctive tactics during the hunt - "a dead grip". It can hold a predator by the neck or head for a long time, until the person pulls them out of the burrow.

Такса
Photo: Dachshund

Despite its funny body and small weight, the dachshund is very mobile and active, it can be called an eternal "motor", which does not subside for a minute. Movement for her is the meaning of life. As for getting used to the new owner, here the process is almost instantaneous, but on the part of the owner of the rate should feel complete reciprocity and love. Only in this case it can become a full-fledged and faithful pet. For a dachshund, a close and subtle spiritual contact with a person is a vital necessity. Ignoring her need for communication and development, you doom this dog to become aggressive, vindictive and sullen.

Thanks to their active "life position" the representatives of this breed will perfectly fit into a large family where there are children. But it should be noted that small dachshund puppies are very sensitive and their psyche is still weak. First time in the house you need to create a warm and more than a quiet environment, so as not to break the individuality of the puppy. It is important to give it more attention, warmth and care.

Dachshund and its history

Такса
Photo: Dachshund

The dachshund is considered one of the oldest hunting normal dogs. The exact time of its appearance is still unknown and causes numerous and violent disputes. But thanks to the drawings carved on the walls of the pyramids, which depicts a funny dog with an extended muzzle and body, and also with very short paws, we can confidently state that the dachshunds managed to "light up" even in the days of Ancient Egypt.

As for modern dogs, here it is necessary to refer to the etymology of the name of the breed. From German it sounds like "dahsa" or "daksa", which in translation means "badger". Germans themselves prefer to call it dax-hund (badger hound). For a long time in Russia, the dachshund was not called the usual word for us. Almost until the middle of the 19th century this dog was called "badger".

Despite the variety of theories about the origin of this breed, in the 19th century, most zoologists and dog experts agreed that the progenitors of the dachshund were from Germany. Allegedly this normal hunting breed has taken its roots from the family of a marriage (a small hound), and is their dwarf subspecies. Earlier in the mid-18th century, a well-known zoologist had already suggested that the dachshund is a representative of hound dogs, with only a few distinctive features - short limb curves, elongated trunk and pointed muzzle. Art canvases of the 15th century clearly demonstrate the grace and attractiveness of this funny breed.

Такса
Photo: Dachshund

But at what point of the world this breed would not appear, and whoever its ancestors were, remains the main question that interests many tax experts: how the dog turned out, with such an unusual appearance. It is unequivocal that the dachshund is the result of mutation of dogs with long limbs, this is their exaggerated form. No matter how terrible it may sound, this breed appeared due to the genetic disease of chondrodystrophy or achondroplasia. Chondrodystrophy is a rare form of limb bone disease, when the body, head and neck continue to grow at a normal pace, and the limbs remain small and twisted.

In the animal world, such a disease is far from uncommon, and in the human world chondrodystrophics are usually called dwarfs. They also have a normal trunk and severely shortened legs and arms. But a person follows the principles of natural selection, so this genetic disease can not spread to our entire species. But the dachshund had no such choice. One tax collector somehow called the rate "a noble and noble dwarf". How accurately and correctly noticed.

The first and loud mention of the dachshund in Russia can be attributed to the middle of the 18th century, when Anna Ioannovna reigned on the throne. Then this breed was highly valued. For 35 pairs of dogs of this breed asked 1100 rubles - a lot of money for those times. But, despite this, the dachshund was not able to win much popularity among hunters and dog experts, since the first places in the list of favorites were always occupied by greyhounds and long-legged hounds. But in 1900 appeared the first community of fans and admirers of this breed. Participants held numerous tribal exhibitions and kept records, which have survived to this day.

More often the fee was set as a pet. One of the brightest representatives of the era of the 19th century, the great writer Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, contained in his house 2 long-haired taxes: a dog and a bitch - Brom Isaiah and Hina Markovna. In one of his letters Chekhov described his dogs as animals with an ugly appearance, awfully crooked paws, a long body and with an extraordinary and startling level of intelligence. Inventiveness, extraordinary intelligence and amazing intelligence celebrated many famous classics of the last century.

The modern dachshund takes pride of place among those dogs that are preferred for sports competitions and, of course, for hunting.

Standards and appearance: the main characteristics

Такса The image of the modern dachshund began to be formed and improved in the middle of the last century. And in 1879 the standard of the breed was considered and adopted, which exists until now and has undergone insignificant changes only twice.

The standard is a description of external details, character traits, productivity, as well as features of the behavior and heredity of the dog. It is worth noting that the standard - this is not a description of the representative of the middle type of breed, but an ideal, which you must constantly strive for. But this does not mean that if you find any discrepancies with the standards, then this will be a defect and a sign of "non-generosity". It only means that your dog is individual and such as she is no more.

Dachshund is the most original dog in the world. She has a squat elongated trunk, stretched, but compact. Its skeleton is very powerful, and the musculature is embossed and dry. The posture is proud and stately.

Такса
Photo: Dachshund

Growth

The height of the normal rate varies from 27 to 20 cm. Depending on whether the knot is a dog or a dog. The height of the withers should not exceed the height in the rump. The length of the trunk is from 150 to 177 cm.

Color

Taxes are:

  1. Single-color . Red, reddish-yellow, dark-red, yellow. The most priority color is dark-red. Claws and nostrils should be black.
  2. Two-color . Black with brown (coffee), rusty-brown with gray, gray with yellow spots on the eyes, on the neck, on both sides of the muzzle, on the paws and on the chest. Black dogs have black claws and a nose, coffee ones have brown ones.
  3. Spotted, tiger and marble . The main tone of marble dachshund is reddish. A gray, yellowish, brown, black spot is allowed. Spots should not be large and predominate over the main color. The nose and claws are black.

Wool

The "original form" of this dog is smooth-haired. But the evolutionary transformation and the development of selection led to the appearance of longhaired dachshunds. Today there are 3 types of wool: smooth, long and stiff. The most popular is the smooth-haired dachshund. Their cover should be very short (no more than 1-2 cm), dense, slightly harsh, shiny, and closely adjacent to the dog's torso.

The long-haired cover should be long, shiny, thick, very soft, straight, with an undercoat and adjacent to the body. A slightly longer coat should be on the neck, lower part of the trunk, on the ears and back of the legs.

Такса Wirehair dachshunds must have a thick, hard, tightly fitting body to the cover. The length is uniform, about 3 cm. The undercoat is very thick, and the coat feels like a bristle to the touch.

The skin should be smooth, without wrinkles and subcutaneous tissue, very elastic. The musculature is developed and embossed. The standard does not allow loose skin and soft muscles.

Head differs elongated form, closer to the nose pointed. Clear lines and outlines, without unevenness and convexity, are dry. The forehead of the dachshund is slightly convex or flat at all, the transition to the muzzle is gradual and smooth, without pronounced fractures. The brow arches of the dog stand out, which give her eyes a meaningful and intelligent look. The nose of the nose is very large, which is typical for a hunting dog. The nostrils are inflated, as if they are in constant readiness to sniff the traces of a predator in the forest. Lips should close the jaws well.

Такса The dachshund ears are slightly rounded at the ends, they are lowered down, their length should coincide with the level of the nose. They are mobile and planted on the head high enough and far. They are soft, but not thick, their front side snug against the cheekbones of the dog. Standards exclude pointed, too small or too large, protruding ears.

Eyes are medium in size, oval and set slightly obliquely. The expression of the eyes at the dachshund is completely unkind and "not very cliché". Their eyes always shine and are filled with friendliness. Despite the color of the dog, the eyes should be dark brown in color. Only marble fees can "afford" a blue or mottled eye color. In the case of a thoroughbred thoroughbred dog, yellow or green shades are not allowed.

Такса Teeth smooth, close fitting, snow-white. The jaw bite is scissor-like.

Chest dachshund is very powerful and strongly protrudes, while creating shallow depressions on both sides. The line of the transition of the chest to the stomach should be smooth and even.

The back is very long and straight, without flexes it gradually passes into the lower back. It differs muscularity and dryness. Strong sag or hump is not allowed.

The front legs of the dachshund are quite thick and powerful, but, at the same time, very short and slightly curved. The blades are very long and close to the chest. The hind legs are also muscular and bony, set apart widely and parallel to each other. Despite the fact that all 4 paws dachshunds are short and twisted, they are very powerful and strong. Pads on the paws are dense, evenly assembled, claws hard and thick.

The tail of the dachshund should be a harmonious continuation of its torso. The length almost reaches the end of the paw. Its base is thick, and towards the end it is sharpened.

The dachshund is strong and enduring, although her appearance can not always "loudly say" about it.

Varieties

Такса In addition to the fact that all the rates are divided into smooth-haired, long-haired and wire-haired, there are several more varieties, determined by the size of the dog.

Standard fees and "rabbits", as well as "dwarfs." Not all these species were created by nature. Their evolution depended on the specialization of hunting, on the species of a certain animal, on which hunting was conducted and on the conditions in which hunting was conducted.

Breeders and dog breeders from Germany for a long time repeated attempts to create the most miniature variety of a dachshund that could easily be hunted in a rabbit hole. Hunting rabbits is very difficult and takes a lot of time and effort. It was just necessary to bring out the breed with short legs, which would feel free in a rabbit hole and could drive the rabbit out, where people were waiting for him.

The rabbit dachshund has become an ideal solution for problem hunting rabbits. But it should be noted that its withdrawal took many years. It was difficult to cross the necessary breeds to create a small dog that does not lose the feeling of anger, aggression, excitement and hunting passion in relation to its prey.

Today, dwarf and rabbit dachshunds are more divorced and kept as a decorative pet.

Also there is an Anglo-American form of dachshund. But this species does not meet the world standards. Breeders from the United Kingdom withdrew this breed, taking into account only their own preferences and standards.

The size

Такса There are fees of 3 different sizes:

  • Standard - the height at the withers is 20-27 cm, the chest girth is not less than 35 cm, the weight is not more than 9 kg
  • Dwarf - 14-21 cm, chest circumference at the age not earlier than 15 months 30-35 cm
  • Rabbit - 10-15 cm, chest girth at the age not earlier than 15 months up to 30 cm

The average life expectancy of dachshunds is 12-15 years.

Price of the puppy of a dachshund

Price of the breed, cost, rubles The cost of dogs of this breed varies, as a rule, from 10 000 to 30 000 rubles . Such a spread of prices is due to the presence of a pedigree, and different titles from parents.

Care and maintenance features

Такса
Photo: Dachshund

The very appearance of the dachshund, its miniature character, means that there will be no problems with the maintenance and care. It can be kept in an apartment or in a country house. But, of course, any animal will be best at will. Такса не исключение, она очень подвижна и любознательна, поэтому, если вы решили привести таксу в квартиру, то вам нужно позаботиться о ежедневной прогулке. Они такие компактные, что вполне могут стать «мобильными», если вы соберетесь в путешествие или на дачу.

Особого ухода таксы не требуют, но есть то, за чем необходимо следить очень пристально, внимательно и регулярно – это их здоровье. Ведь они больны с самого рождения и до конца своих дней. Их заболевание имеет генетическую наследственность, и от этого никуда не денешься. Правильный уход за их здоровьем – это своевременное развитие и укрепление мышц спины и конечностей. Для этого необходимо совершать прогулки с пересечение местности, а также заниматься плаванием.

Активные прогулки на свежем воздухе будут способствовать хорошему кровообращению и укреплению всех групп мышц, также это поможет сохранить аппетит и обеспечит крепкий здоровый сон. Следует запомнить, что питомцев этой породы необходимо с самого маленького возраста приучать к прогулке с ошейником и на поводке. При этом поводок должен быть натянутым, это нужно для хорошей осанки. Также это поможет выработать дисциплину и прилежный характер. Ни в коем случае не стоит рисковать здоровьем таксы и выгуливать ее в дождливую погоду или в слякоть.

К здоровью таксы нужно относиться бережно и аккуратно, избегать лишних нагрузок и травм. Проблему с позвоночником может вызвать банальное ожирение и прыжки в вертикальном положении. Заядлые таксятники знают, что самое распространенное заболевание с самыми печальными последствиями – это выпадение или смещение межпозвоночного диска (дископатия). Продлить здоровую и счастливую жизнь вы сможете только в том случае, если будете правильно ухаживать за таксой и обращать внимание на ее настроение и поведение.

Вопрос линьки также можно отнести к особенностям ухода и содержания таксы. Несмотря на то, какую разновидность породы вы выберете (длинношерстную или гладкошерстную), период линьки у всех видов наступает в одно и то же время и протекает практически одинаково. Активная линька, которая может доставить неприятные хлопоты, начинается весной. Осенью такса «сбрасывает» старую шерстку немного спокойнее. В этот период лучше всего воспользоваться негрубой щеткой или специальными рукавичками, а также несколько раз в день мокрыми руками проводить по всему телу таксы, дабы избавиться от выпавших шерстинок.

Такса Купать таксу не рекомендуется слишком часто. Точнее, не чаще 2-х раз в год. Такса считается одной из самых чистоплотных собак, она тщательно следит за своей гигиеной. Частые водные процедуры могут навредить ее здоровью. Но далеко не редкость, когда маленькие щенки или даже взрослая такса может специально изваляться в грязи или даже в собственных экскрементах (такое поведение обусловлено природными инстинктами, которые призывают скрыть собственный запах во время охоты), тут уж ждать не стоит, и в таких случаях собаку необходимо обязательно искупать и почистить.

Чем и как правильно кормить?

Сегодня современный рынок предлагает владельцам собак широкий ассортимент сухих кормов, подкормок и т.п. Но опытные собаковеды и кинологи рекомендуют комбинировать натуральное питание с сухими кормами. Можно кормить как по отдельности, так и смешивая традиционную еду с покупным кормом в одной миске. В качестве натурального корма может быть нежирное мясо, творог, кефир, растительные белки. Нельзя кормить таксу с «вашего стола», слишком солеными, сладкими, жареными и копчеными продуктами.

Самое главное правило кормления такс – не перекармливать. Ожирение и лишний вес могут стать серьезной проблемой для здоровья. С первых месяцев жизни и до 4-го желательно кормить не чаще 4-х раз в день. Начиная с четвертого месяца до полугода – не чаще 3-х раз. А, начиная с полугода и до конца жизни – не чаще 2-х раз в день.

Как выбрать и где купить хорошего щенка таксы?

Такса Если вы решились на то, что в вашем доме должен появиться щенок таксы, то для начала нужно подготовиться к его «прибытию». Обдумайте, где он будет есть и спать, а где ему можно играть. Обзаведитесь большим количеством резиновых и деревянных игрушек, чтобы вместо них маленький такса-карапуз не грыз вашу обувь и мебель. После это решите, кого вы хотите, кобеля или суку. Здесь нужно ориентироваться исключительно на собственные предпочтения. Только стоит учитывать, что кобели намного агрессивнее и злее сучек, но они терпеливее и выносливее. Суки же очень ласковые, осторожные и понятливые. Но самое главное то, что сука будет ежегодно «требовать» продолжения потомства.

Если вы хотите породистую и племенную таксу, то лучше всего обратиться к зарекомендовавшим себя владельцам, которые смогут подтвердить родословную родителей щенка. Свое предпочтение отдавайте тому малышу, который появился в немногочисленном помете. Это означает, что материнского молока ему хватало, а, следовательно, он вполне здоров. Важно, чтобы у будущего хозяина и щенка возникла взаимная симпатия. Не стоит выбирать агрессивного или слишком вялого питомца. Он должен быть в меру активным и игривым, немного выделяться из общего количества щенков. Понаблюдайте за его поведением, аппетитом и за тем, как он играет.

Чаще всего щенка берут в возрасте не младше одного месяца. К этому времени он должен быть достаточно упитанным, но подвижным. Его темперамент должен быть жизнерадостным, а во взгляде должна читаться любознательность. Глазки блестящие, а уши щенка таксы должны быть чистыми, без выделений. Конечности широко поставленные, лапы короткие, но уже сильные. Мордочка маленькой таксы должна быть округлая, несмотря на то, что у взрослой таксы она заостренная. Хвост толстый и круглый, без изломов или уплотнений. Шерсть блестящая, одной длины. Обязательно проверьте шерсть на отсутствие паразитов или перхоти.

Попросите у владельца все документы и справки, которые будут подтверждать родословную и наличие необходимых прививок. Но все же после покупки сразу отвезите щенка к ветеринару на плановый осмотр. Таким образом, вы сможете вовремя выявить незаметные глазу дефекты и нарушения здоровья.

Так как щенки таксы очень подвижны, с ними нужно быть очень осторожными. Ни в коем случае нельзя поднимать их под лапы.

Дрессировать или воспитывать?

Дрессировка в случае с таксами – это весьма тяжелый и долгий труд. Казалось бы, такса очень умное животное, наделенное непревзойденным интеллектом с самого рождения, значит, и дрессировка должна быть элементарно простой. But this is not so. Вместе с умом такса наделена упрямством и собственным мнением. Порой кажется, что она прекрасно понимает, что хочет от нее хозяин, но в ее взгляде читается вопрос: «а надо ли мне это?». Но есть несколько советов, которые могут помочь начинающему таксятнику в этом нелегком деле.

Такса Для начала поймите, что дрессировать и заставлять таксу что-то сделать без ее согласия и желания – невыполнимая задача. Но Nameмлить не стоит. Все команды должны быть четкими, громкими и твердыми. Вы должны постараться выработать у собаки рефлексы. То есть, отдавая команду «лежать», нужно немного надавить на ее круп, показывая, чего вы хотите и что от своего не отступитесь.

Не нужно уговаривать таксу что-то сделать, переводя все в шутку и игру. Собака должна понять, что вы лидер и сейчас не время играть. Обязательно хвалите ее добрыми словами и лакомствами, но только после того, как она выполнила команду.

Запасайтесь терпением, излишней требовательностью и нервозностью вы добьетесь обратных результатов: собака станет неуправляемая и невнимательная. Воспитание должно быть последовательным, с максимальной отдачей вашего внимания. Интеллектуальные способности этой собаки позволяют ей с легкостью запоминать многочисленные команды. Но на каждую команду должно отводиться достаточное количество времени, чтобы такса ее внимательно запомнила и выучила.

Если вы решись на такое приобретение, как такса, то будьте готовы к тому, что эта собака придет в ваш дом надолго.

Articles about the breed

Фото такс

3 COMMENTS

    • For 3000 they do not sell purebred dachshunds, but a cross, and without pedigree and documents confirming the breed.
      In nurseries there are puppies and for 50000-70000.

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