Official dog breeding has a long history, both in our country and around the world. The stimulus for its development was the immediate need for animals, which could assume certain working functions.
They not only had to help the person in carrying out heavy physical work, but also to carry out more complex activities that require endurance, strength, subtle scent , innate courage and devotion, as well as ingenuity, that is, qualities that are abundant in dogs. So there were service dogs.
In ancient times large dogs were used even as fighting animals or fighting dogs , but these days their service is usually peaceful. It does not decrease, but on the contrary, there is a growing need for "specialists" of traditional occupations: shepherds, watchmen, dog guides. Dogs work on the scent trail, help in the search for ore and gas. In place of dying dogs specialties come new, such as the detection of drugs or the search for victims of earthquakes under the rubble of buildings.
And although the work of official dogs is sometimes simply invaluable in many spheres of human activity, they are increasingly being led home as partners, bearing in mind that the main dog "profession" is a human friend.
The owner of such a dog should be aware of the entire responsibility for the animal's contents. Any large dog (and all representatives of service breeds without exception are such), especially living in the city, should be well educated. Otherwise, its owner is constantly exposed to various troubles, and the lives of others are in danger. Almost all service dogs need a certain job, which is increasingly replaced by a general, and then service training.
In addition, every owner should know that a service dog can not get a breeding class without a diploma of surrendering at least one training course. A large and strong dog to maintain a good physical shape requires regular long walks, the opportunity to frolic without a leash in the open space. A properly balanced balanced diet (read more about dog food ), which requires significant material costs, plays a very important role in growing and maintaining. Precisely because it needs the most time-consuming care, the service dog is the least suitable for the role of a fashionable toy.
Now in the domestic cynology the Caucasian sheep-dogs have become fashionable, the collie has long been popular. Before buying such a dog, think about what you were guided by when choosing, whether all weighed. After bringing in a small flat puppy, the owners often do not think about that in a few months it will grow already so much that it will be difficult to find a corner at home where the dog would not interfere, taking up too much space.
A young healthy animal, mobile and inquisitive, will not lie for a long time on its litter. To form a close contact with the dog, the host must choose a friend of a suitable temperament, otherwise mutual understanding will not be achieved. Calm, full of dignity of St. Bernard or Newfoundland will irritate an overly energetic person, and it is difficult to hold a phlegmatic even for several hours in a row with a mobile and cheerful collie or cheerful Airedale terrier.
So, the choice is made. You need a dog with which you can safely make late walks, calmly trust her child and be sure of the safety of household goods. But which breed is yours?
In Russia ten breeds are used directly for work. These are five sheep-dogs - German, Scottish, Caucasian, Central Asian and South Russian - black terrier, Moscow watchdog, Airedale, Risenschnauzer and Rottweiler. The rest, whose service is impossible due to climatic conditions or simply because of the lack of appropriate traditions, are used in European countries. In Russia, they are called sports and service and they are usually bred as amateurs.
The most famous service dogs are the Shepherds
They are bred for sheep grazing, which is reflected in the name. However, these dogs have long since successfully mastered many other specialties. The German shepherd is the most universal and the most popular breed in the whole world. It suits any special training and can carry any service.
These are beautiful dogs of classical appearance: black with a tan, with a large, proudly planted head, erect ears and a long saber-like tail. A dense, short, closely fitting coat makes the dog suitable for open content.
Undoubtedly, the external resemblance to the wolf gave rise to a widespread judgment that the breed originated directly from these forest predators. The height of the German shepherd at the withers is 56-66 cm. For a long time only one type of breed was bred - Eastern European, whose representatives are somewhat larger and lighter colored. This dog can be safely recommended for any application, it will always justify your hopes.
Recently, three domestic shepherds - the Caucasian, South-Russian and Central Asian - have become especially popular. These dogs also cause great interest abroad, and therefore are actively exported from Russia as a rare live souvenir. The most widely known Caucasian shepherd. This dog, bred in the mountains of Georgia as a shepherd, was irreplaceable for guard duty.
In cities a huge, extraordinarily strong, fluffy shepherd is planted as a reliable watchman. If she lets the uninvited guests into the apartment, she will not let you go back for anything. But in no case should a Caucasian be taken to a man who had never had a dog before. By nature this animal is sufficiently malicious, with a very closed character, and one must be able to achieve his obedience. If you managed to establish the right relationship, and your pet has always understood who is his unquestioned authority, you will never have to complain about this trustworthy and reliable companion.
The South Russian Shepherd is not just a lump of white curly wool, but the creature is strict and independent. Appearance, promising good-natured phlegmatic, in this case is deceptive. The dog is incredulous to strangers, very attentive and vigilant, it's not for nothing that the flocks of the Crimean khans trusted it. He is a wonderful watchman and a good friend.
Central Asian sheep dogs are of two types - smooth-haired and long-haired. These sedentary dogs do not suffer a bad heat, but with open content it is still necessary to protect them from direct sunlight. Two or three such dogs can guard a huge herd, one-a few rooms, so it only seems at first glance that the dog is lazy and does not pay attention to anything. The path to the heart of this breed is not easy, it recognizes the master and submits only to someone who will truly love it, which, however, does not exclude reasonable coercion.
Scottish Shepherd Dog, Collie is also a shepherd's dog. It is bred in the south of England. She has a wonderful temperament - easy, cheerful, affectionate. It is a dog with a very subtle psychic organization: it can not be screamed at, it easily resents the injustice of the owner, is well versed in all the nuances of the relationship of family members.
Collie demands that she is paid attention not only during feeding and walks, but also just talked with her and caressed. In order for the luxurious coat to have a rich and attractive appearance, it needs to be combed regularly. Collie is a wonderful watchman, a kind nanny for children, an intelligent conductor of the blind, that is, she can learn almost any canine specialty, which is helped by her rare ingenuity and versatile natural giftedness.
Among the approximately four hundred breeds, now known to filmmakers, two were withdrawn as far back as the Soviet Union, and not so long ago received the status of a breed. It is a black terrier and a Moscow guard.
The black terrier is a large dog with a thick, slightly curly hair. This hardy, physically strong dog was obtained by crossing the Airedale terrier, the Risenschnauzer and the Rottweiler. The breed combines such qualities as courage, reasonable malice, an extraordinary mind. The owner of a black terrier must be an experienced cynologist who does not allow the dog to take over the top and is able to provide her with proper training. Unsurpassed as a watchman, the black terrier is suitable for other works, where a subtle flair, strength and courage are required.
The Moscow watchdog is a successful result of crossing the St. Bernards and the Caucasian Shepherds. Appearance of the dog inherited from the good-natured rescuers, and severe and inflexible character - from the Caucasians, which allows it to successfully carry the service, declared the name of the breed.
Doberman and Risenschnauzer belong to breeds originating from ancient jackal-like dogs and have a common ancestor - a German pinscher, practically unknown outside his homeland and resembling a Doberman in miniature.
Doberman - a fine service dog with a well developed musculature; Can, with appropriate training, which is allowed to begin only in adulthood, to take rather high obstacles. Character - fast-paced and quick-tempered, but not aggressive. This is a slim black dog or chocolate beautiful streamlined shape. To himself, the Doberman is not particularly peaceful, and dog fights often occur precisely with his "filing." As a watchman he does not know his peers, but he can successfully master other spheres of activity.
Risen Schnauzer is a dog for the whole family. He will gladly carry a light bag with purchases, it will be fun to fiddle with the children, and in the absence of the owners he will work as a watchman, then to meet them with a joyful barking - "to report" that everything is in order. This sociable, benevolent dog loves the ball game on the green lawn, willingly takes part in your country walks, usually without much trouble getting used to driving in the car.
Rigid hair of the dog does not need any other care, except for the once every six months of trimming - plucking dead ostevogo hair. The dog is obedient by nature, but still it is not a toy, and the issue of education should be approached accordingly, only then the Riesen will become a worthy companion of your family.
Among the terriers, there are only two service dogs that unconditionally refer to service dogs. This is a black terrier and airedale terrier. Airedale terrier is close to the Riesen Schnauzer and Dobermann, in its later ancestors is the English Terrier, which is the common progenitor of all the terriers in general. Airedale terrier is the ideal dog for keeping in an apartment.
Relatively small size, fussy "terrier" temper, complaisant character, innate savvy - the combination of these qualities make Airedale a wonderful friend. A person who once had a dog of this breed, is attached to her for life. Airedale terrier and riesen wool require the same care. This derived in England Terrier is characterized by purely British reasoning and famous English humor. A reliable watchman, a search dog, a guide of the blind, a nanny - that's far from a complete list of possible occupations of the Airedale.
Modern dog-shaped dogs originated directly from fighting dogs that took part in the legendary battles of ancient times. Each of the six breeds described below is absolutely individual, and it is sometimes difficult to believe that, for example, a boxer and Newfoundland have a common ancestor.
Dog is one of the largest dogs on earth. Smooth wool colored can be different: the standard allows for several options. These proud and majestic animals are very sensitive to the climate, easily catch cold, they should be protected from drafts and sudden temperature changes. Mastiff is devoted to his masters. He protects the apartment well. Light, non-capricious (although there are no rules without exception) character makes a slender handsome man the ideal friend of every person who loves animals. The Dane independently establishes contact with each member of the family and builds relations on an honest, uncompromising basis, because he can not stand lies and falsities.
The Rottweiler is a dog that is malicious enough, phlegmatic, but with a good reaction. At home, in Germany, at one time it was used as a mighty heavy truck. But a remarkable mind, reckless courage and a rare flair soon predetermined another application of the Rottweiler. Now this is basically a search or guard dog, which, due to its brilliant qualities, deserves a wider distribution. The prejudice against Rottweilers is completely groundless - they just do not like familiarity and certainly obey only the master.
The Boxer is full of special, one to him peculiar charm. Expressive muzzle can depict all shades of mood, but it is also helped by the movements of the short-tailed tail, which always looks particularly touching. Boxer longer than any other breed, retains a puppy character, but already in the earliest childhood is learned the basic commands . This red-haired, white-breasted dog in a black velvet mask is a reliable protector and the most devoted friend you can ever wish for.
St. Bernard is a charming giant that will suit everyone who does not look for an ardent temperament in a dog. This massive red-white dog will go after the owner and into the fire and into the water and, certainly, for any walk, although long trips wear him out. The famous profession of St. Bernard is a lifeguard in the snow-capped mountains. In this service, it has been successfully applied to this day. Shaggy "fur coat" reliably protects the dog from the cold, and love of people and almost fantastic flair allow you to find those in trouble even under a deep layer of snow.
Newfoundland - also a lifeguard, only water. This giant perfectly swims and dives. A luxurious coat, entirely black or white with black spots (landseer), and a good temper make this breed one of the most attractive. It's not for nothing that even in places far from natural reservoirs, Newfans are being fed more and more often. Never forget about the natural inclinations of the animal, and therefore for Newfy it is desirable at least several times a year to find an opportunity to swim. These dogs are very fond of children, they are passive in character, but they are optimistic.
Labrador is a breed that is becoming more popular every day in Russia. Labradors are closely related to Newfoundlands. Previously, they helped fishermen pull the net to the shore, and now they have mastered a whole range of professions. This is a beautiful black dog with a semi-long adjacent coat. "Intelligent", the level character of Labrador makes him capable of carrying a variety of services, and most importantly, turns into a pleasant and complete self-worth of a companion.
Abroad and breed other service breeds. Thanks to the efforts of enthusiasts, some of them already appeared in Russia. This mastino and Irish wolfhound.
Do not believe when they say: "There are no better breeds." The best is yours.