For the first time faced with the death of absolutely healthy at first glance puppies, any person experiences a shock and begins to seek out the truth, accusing the happened of himself, the surrounding and even unknown intruders.
However, unfortunately, for veterinarians such phenomena do not seem to be unusual or rare. In this article we will try to understand the causes of the syndrome of sudden death of puppies.
Causes of death of puppies
Some breeders of dogs became witnesses to the death of whole litters. The culprit of such rapidly developing events may be herpesvirus infection, hepatitis or bacterial infection that has penetrated into the fragile organism of a puppy with mother's milk.
A characteristic feature of the pathogenesis of infection with microorganisms is the rapidity of the disease, leading in a few days to the death of all the litter. With herpesvirus infection, the pathogen enters the puppy's body through saliva or flow from the nasal passages. Also, infection can occur with close contact or the use of the same items for care and feeding.
Even the owner can provoke an outbreak among his pets, bringing home the virus on his clothes, shoes and even hands. As practice shows, the cramped content of animals in nurseries and houses leads to the fact that the herpes virus infection that has arisen in one individual leads to 100% infection of all other pets. And there are no exceptions to this rule.
Curiously, adult dogs have quite good immunity to herpesvirus infection. For this reason, the clinical picture of this pathology is rather blurred. But puppies, pregnant animals or immunocompromised individuals suffer cruelly from herpesvirus infection, which spreads with rapidity of lightning throughout their body.
If we talk about puppies, then, as a rule, they do not die right away, but after 2 weeks. Before leading to death, the animal virus passes a long and complicated path. Having introduced into the mucous membrane of its host, the virus proceeds to intensive reproduction in conditions of low temperature. Naturally, this activity destroys the cells, which leads to the erosion of the mucous membrane.
If, for some reason, immunity is not able to withstand pathology at this stage, the virus will continue its march without hindrance, damaging the nervous ganglia, which will serve as a refuge for the entire period of latent development. Further, if a stressful situation occurs, for example, if the conditions of puppies' condition worsen, the genome is reactivated and the herpesvirus re-affects the mucous membrane of the animal.
From this moment the dog becomes infectious, as the causative agent of herpesvirus infection is actively released into the environment, although in the carrier itself a clear clinical picture of the pathology may still be absent. Infected young females often have miscarriages and stillbirths. Even if the puppies are born alive, they are completely unviable and die without living even 2 days.
What to do to avoid the death of puppies?
Owner after the birth of puppies should carefully monitor their development. The first signal, informing about impending catastrophe, will be the failure of babies from mother's milk. After a short period of time puppies clearly show problems with respiratory organs. Then the puppies begin to die fast one by one. In less than a week, the entire litter dies.
It should be understood that with the expanded clinical picture of the pathology, it is already pointless to treat puppies. The only thing you can try to do is to isolate healthy babies by transferring them to artificial feeding. In parallel with this, it is necessary to improve the living conditions of animals.
According to veterinary experts, the most effective method to combat the sudden death of puppies is the formation of maternal immunity. Even a brief contact with herpesviruses that have been infected with herpes will allow the natural bitch to form a natural immune system. However, such measures should not be carried out before and shortly after birth .
Infectious hepatitis, although it occurs much less often than herpesvirus infection, but its consequences are no less terrible. The death of the dung is so rapid that the owner does not even have time to invite a veterinarian. From the moment of infection to death, less than 1 hour passes.
The clinical picture of infectious hepatitis , represented by vomiting, diarrhea, fever and abundant discharge from the eyes and nose, confuses even the experienced dog breeders, as they diagnose poisoning in their pets. Even a recovered animal will carry the virus throughout the year.
In the environment, the pathogen is excreted along with the urine and excrement of the dog. Thus, the owner should forbid his pet during walks in the fresh air sniffing dog tags, since in this case, the risk of infectious hepatitis through the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth is extremely high.
The life cycle of a virus in the body of a dog begins with the defeat of the lymph nodes, where it multiplies extensively. Further, after leaving the affected cells of the lymph nodes, the viral particles accumulate in the parenchyma of the liver, causing its destruction.
At this stage of pathology, the animal has a clear picture of hepatitis and vasculitis, which is fraught with the death of the animal. To date, the only effective method of protection against viral hepatitis is timely vaccination.