One of the most common pathologies of the oral cavity in dogs is an incorrect bite. Diseases of teeth in dogs are often the cause of chronic lesions of the intestines, stomach, joints, skin, respiratory organs, kidneys and even the heart. Since the state of the digestive system affects all the health of the animal.
Incorrect bite in dogs makes it difficult to eat, injures the mucous membrane of the cheeks, gums, tongue and lips. It can also cause sinusitis. Dogs with bite defects can not participate in exhibitions even after a successful correction they can not participate in breeding work, since jaw pathologies are often of a genetic nature.
The causes of malocclusion in dogs
Among the most common causes are genetic and hereditary deviations. Also on the wrong formation of teeth affects:
- Disruption of development,
- Deficiency in the diet of minerals,
- Training and games with excessive strain on growing teeth,
- Untimely change of teeth,
- Too large molars and any other discrepancy in tooth size compared to the size of the jaws.
It is possible to notice an incorrect position of the teeth after a puppy's age of four months with a change of milk teeth to permanent teeth. At this point, some animals have oligodontia (not a full set of teeth) or the presence of extra teeth (hyperdontia, polyiodontia). In small breeds of dogs, a double row of teeth is often observed because of non-falling of milk teeth (false polyiodontics).
Types of bite anomalies
Most often there are three types of bite anomalies:
Prognathia, that is, an undershot in one breed is not considered normal. This is an insufficient development of the lower jaw, when the lower incisors do not reach the upper incisors. The upper premolars are shifted forward with respect to the lower premolars.
Progeny (undershot, reverse scissor bite or bulldog bite) occurs when the lower incisors protrude in front of the upper ones. This bite is considered the norm in some breeds with a short snout: French and English bulldogs, boxers, shih-tzu . An anomalous and straight bite, when the lower and upper incisors touch each other with edges.
However, such contact can cause unequal wear and early tooth loss. But for some breeds it is considered normal. There are also such anomalies as the front cross bite (one or several lower incisors are located before the upper incisors), a bite bite (one side of the jaw grows faster than the other), an open bite (some incisors do not touch each other and are spaced vertically). There are also not cut teeth.
Correction of malocclusion in dogs
Prevention or correction and abnormalities of the occlusion is handled by orthodontics. Doctors insist that the sooner you fix the bite in the dog, the quicker and easier it is possible to achieve good results. Correction occurs with the help of braces-systems - special designs for correction of bite and alignment of teeth. They are removable and non-removable.
The most modern removable systems are acrylic transparent kapy, which presses on the teeth in the right direction. They are changed once in a week or two so that the teeth are constantly shifted. Also, removable modified brackets for small puppies in the form of a rubber ring are often used. Fixed constructions are fixed until correction of the bite. The doctor periodically tightens the plates to adjust the degree of rotation and tilt of the tooth to be repaired.