German Shepherd: description of the breed and photos, health, puppy's choice, character

Немецкая овчарка фото The German Shepherd is a breed of dogs with iron nerves and a balanced temperament. Since ancient times, people have been accompanied by wolf-like dogs that helped him graze livestock, hunt and protect his property from wild predators. On the territory of Germany lived shepherd dogs, whose ancestors were an Indian wolf and a local European dog. As a result of crossing these two species, a bronze dog appeared, which was more obedient to man than her ancestors. It was she who became the ancestor of the Old German Shepherds, which were widely used throughout Europe in the Middle Ages and the New Time.

German Shepherd

Tendency to training
Watchtower qualities
Security features
The size
Attitudes towards children

See photos of the breed »

The potential of these dogs as aides and friends of man was very great, but with the development of cities the shepherd's function lost its relevance. Therefore, there was a need to bring out a new more universal type of dogs that would be in demand in modern society.

Немецкая овчарка, фото
Photo: German Shepherd

Such a responsible business was only possible to an enthusiastic person, which turned out to be the German captain Max von Stefanitz, who possessed the necessary knowledge and sufficient condition for carrying out breeding work. He developed his own withdrawal strategy, which differed from public opinion, which denied the prospects of wolf-like dogs.

Captain von Stefanitz set himself a difficult task: to deduce and popularize the universal dog, which would combine previously incompatible qualities. At the disposal of the founder of the breed were various types of Old German Shepherds, among which he began to search for the ideal dog for further breeding. The basis was the rule that the breed type at the genetic level is transmitted by the male, so the search was based on this principle.

There were many worthy candidates for the role of the father of German shepherds, but von Stefanitz culled them in search of their ideal. He needed an obedient, clever dog, capable of training various duties, and an appearance was also important, in which, along with strength and strength, the noble beauty of a breed animal should have been present. But all the same in the first place were the intellect and working qualities, which "father of the breed" were most appreciated.

Such a dog was found in 1899 at one of the exhibitions visited by von Stefanitz. It was a medium-sized dog named Hector, renamed the new owner in Horad von Grafrat. In this dog the strong constitution was combined with a noble bearing, an inexhaustible natural energy with the character of a gentleman. It was Horand that was registered as the first German shepherd and left a large number of offspring, from which the pedigree lines of modern representatives of this breed go.

Further events related to the formation of the breed developed swiftly. Usually for the formation of the breed and its popularization it takes about 100 years, and sometimes several centuries, in the case of the German shepherd, an unprecedented success was achieved in just 20 years. In 1899, the German Shepherd Society was registered, and a purposeful breeding work began.

Already in 1923, this organization had 27,000 breeders and breeders. The ideological inspirer of the breed remained von Stefanitz, who developed the Society's charter and the German Shepherd standard. Later, some changes were made to it, in particular, the hull of the dog became longer and squat.

It is characteristic that the dogs for breeding were selected not only for the exterior, but also for working characteristics and psychological stability, fixing the best qualities in the breed. At the very first exhibitions, shepherds showed the quality of dogs, but the breeder's goal was completely different - to ensure that his offspring worldwide fame as the best service dog. First von Stefanitz offered to use his pets in the police, and after success in this field they were involved in the army.

Немецкая овчарка Already during the First World War, German shepherds have established themselves as irreplaceable orderlies, signalmen, patrol dogs, scouts, guards, snoops. But the history of Germany affected the development of the breed not in the best way. The popularity of German shepherds throughout the world grew, but with the outbreak of war, a negative attitude to everything German appeared. This led to the fact that in other countries the breed was used, but was called differently, for example, in the USA it became the sheep-dog of America, in England - by the Alsatian.

During the Second World War the German shepherds' stock was greatly reduced: they died on the battlefield, died due to a lack of food. Therefore, after the end of hostilities, a new stage in the history of the breed begins, connected with its revival. But now German shepherds have already been bred not only in Germany, but also far beyond its borders: in the USA, in South America, in Japan, in Scandinavian countries, in the Soviet Union.

Now in our country there are various nurseries in which high-quality breed lines are cultivated and new, progressive lines for selection work are laid. Although in many countries the German shepherd is already developing by the forces of local breeders, but do not forget about the opinion of the "father of the breed" von Stefanitz, who indicated the basic principles of successful breeding work.

  1. Breeding should not be carried out for the benefit, but based on the love of the breed. The breeder needs a creative approach, not the look of an enterprising businessman. He should give his pets a maximum of time and attention.
  2. When breeding German shepherds it is important to pay attention to the stability of their psyche. They should behave adequately not only in the circle of familiar people and dogs, but also among strangers.
  3. You can not set a goal for breeding only champions, the breed is important and medium dogs with excellent working qualities. The main thing is not to save on the health of pets and raise them strong and cheerful.
  4. For breeding, females and males from tested lines are chosen, in which already there are healthy offspring. Representatives of the breed for breeding are selected according to the following principles: health, working qualities, character, exterior, intellect. Cull dogs with poor health, unstable psyche are rejected, knitting between close relatives is excluded.

See also: German Shepherd Breeding

Russian Hachiko
In Togliatti there is a Monument of Devotion in memory of the German Shepherd, who was waiting for her masters for 7 years.

Breed standard: basic characteristics

The German Shepherd does not look like a heavy big dog and not easy, its strong build is combined with dryness and muscularity. Growth at the withers of males is 60-65 cm, female - 55-60 cm.

The head has a characteristic shape: it is wedge-shaped and long, moderately widened between the ears. The skull and muzzle are the same in length, the skull is almost square.

Jaws are well developed, scissor bite, very powerful.

Nose is necessarily black.

Lips of a dark color fit tightly to the jaws.

Eyes of a dark color of medium size almond shaped, slightly obliquely planted.

Ears are erect in a triangular shape of medium size. The ends are slightly pointed, pointing upwards. The ears stand vertically in front of the sink, but can be laid back when stationary or moving.

The neck is strong and muscular without suspension.

The body is stretched with a continuous line of back, which starts from the neck, passes through the expressed withers and slightly descends to the rump. The thorax is well developed, the back is muscular and strong.

The tail gently hanging in the form of a bend, on the inside fluffy.

Forelegs parallel and straight. The forearms are strong, the elbows should not be turned or brought together. Paws have a rounded shape, large, well assembled.

Hind legs parallel. Hips and shins have almost the same length, hocks are clearly pronounced.

It is important to observe the proportions of the body, the length and angles of the location of the limbs. These indicators affect the performance. With the correct addition of movement the dogs are sweeping and free.

Немецкая овчарка и щенок
Photo: German Shepherd Dog and Puppy

The coat is stiff, short and tight against the skin. There is undercoat. The longest hair is on the neck.

Color can be one of the following:

  • Black with marks of gray, light, brown or yellow shades;
  • Black monophonic;
  • Gray with a dark cloak and a dark mask;

Undercoat gray tone.

Hero Dog
German Shepherd Sophie saved a sinking 5-year-old girl. It was not even deafness that prevented the heroic deed from doing the dog. She instinctively recognized that the child was in danger, swam towards her and pulled her to the shore.

Character of the German Shepherd

The German Shepherd is a devoted friend with a steady psyche. The character of this dog can be spoken for a long time, and only good. In pureblood "Germans" negative character traits are completely absent, which makes this dog unique and irreplaceable. These are noble animals, for whom the purpose of life is service for the benefit of the owner. They do not like to lie idly by idle, they are happy with any opportunity to benefit. Therefore, they will readily compile the company to their master both in carrying out military or search services, and during an ordinary walk.

German shepherds are non-aggressive and non-conflictable towards humans and other animals. They are able to react to the situation on their own, and feel the danger. In other words, if you are threatened by detractors, then the dog of this breed will not wait for you to give the appropriate command, it will react and protect you.

One of the main features of character is fearlessness, and even fearlessness. The German Shepherd will not meditate on unequal powers with the enemy, she will simply rush at him and will stand to the death to defend the interests of her master. A dog develops a sense of attachment to one owner, who should educate her. But she does not ignore the other members of the family and also loves, especially children, with whom she is ready, forgetting about seriousness, playing and joking.

The German Shepherd does not like loneliness and idleness. If she is long deprived of the company of the owner, she begins to miss and be bored. The only way to get rid of it is to take some task, for example, to entrust the territory of the yard or the owner's things. This is a very industrious and noble animal, which can not be bribed, forcing to refuse to fulfill the debt.

The four-footed actor
German Shepherds are great movie actors, it was confirmed by a representative of the breed named Rin Ting Tin. He starred in 26 films, often playing the role of a wolf, conducted his own show on the radio and eventually got a star on the Walk of Fame in Hollywood.

Training and education of the German Shepherd

The German Shepherd has long been among the three most intelligent breeds of dogs. In the minds of millions of people, this statement is further reinforced by the works of cinema, in which the smart, obedient and ideally trained "Germans" are often involved. But still, to get a dog that shows the wonders of the intellect, it's not enough just to buy a thoroughbred puppy, you also need to find time for systematic education.

If you want a dog "like a movie", then simple training for teams at home is unlikely to help you. It will be necessary to undergo vocational training in one or even several training courses. Everything depends on the purpose of acquiring a dog. Recently, such courses as "Managed City Dog" and "Protective City Dog", "Companion Dog" are very popular. Of course, you need to start training with the general training course. To perform professional service activities, dogs are additionally trained in different methods of work, for example, guard or search services.

In any case, the German shepherd is distinguished by natural wit, ability to work and desire to learn, so you do not need to miss the opportunity to develop her natural abilities.

Our service is both dangerous and difficult
German Shepherd Dzhulbars was presented to the award "For Military Merit". She took part in the battles and demining of objects, and during the war years she discovered 468 mines and 150 shells.

Care of the German Shepherd

Knowing about the Spartan nature of dogs of this breed, some people think that caring for them is reduced to a minimum. On the one hand, this is true, but this does not mean that you can have a German dog and give it to yourself. The best qualities of the breed are manifested only on the background of excellent health, so care and attention from the owner are necessary.

To maintain the vital energy of a German shepherd, she needs a balanced diet, in which protein sources will predominate. That is, the basis of the ration of the service dog should be meat products .

A potato is a useless product, as it is poorly digested by the animal's body. Harmful pasta and flour products, not beneficial, but only leading to obesity and loss of working qualities. Portions for an adult dog should be calculated on the basis of its weight, and be sufficient for saturation. The more nutritious the food, the less the portion can be, and vice versa.

Дрессировка немецкой овчарки About once a week a dog needs to have a home medical examination. Even if it is healthy and cheerful, such precaution will not prevent to detect dangerous diseases in a timely manner. In addition to typical diseases for all dogs, German shepherds may have hereditary diseases that are specific to this breed, associated with a violation of the musculoskeletal system. Another weak point is the eyes.

It is necessary to observe the vaccination schedule, carry out treatment against internal and external parasites, monitor the condition of the coat. A dog may have an allergy to any product or even a certain type of dry food, which immediately can not be recognized by confusing it with a skin disease.

As you can see, the owner of such a strong dog as a German shepherd, no less trouble and trouble than the owner of any other animal. Insufficient care and violation of the basic rules of feeding and keeping necessarily adversely affect the health and nature of your pet, so think about whether you can find the time and desire for caring for the dog.

As for the conditions of detention, then, as for any large dog, it is desirable to stay in the courtyard of a private house, best of all in a spacious aviary. But German shepherds can live in apartments, for them the main thing is to feel their importance and have a protected object.

See also: Dysplasia of joints in German shepherds

Choosing a puppy how to buy a good pet

Как выбрать щенка немецкой овчарки? Puppy German Shepherd - this is so charming creature that you need a lot of effort will to adhere to strict rules of choice and not buy the first one you like. Most importantly, you need to determine in advance the purpose of the acquisition. Some people, obeying the momentary impulse, decide to acquire a thoroughbred German shepherd, dreaming of an exhibition career and further breeding, but then realize that they do not need it. As a result, a promising puppy with an excellent pedigree just sits all his life in the aviary, although he could benefit the development of the breed.

Others, on the contrary, just want a good dog, but then, having bought a puppy, suddenly decide to attend exhibitions with him. But the puppy was selected according to other criteria, and it can not achieve serious success. You need to think about this in advance in order to avoid disappointment.

For an exhibition career, you do not just need to purchase a puppy in a nursery, but to get to know the breed's breeding history in perspective breed lines. Each kennel can have its own breeding characteristics, which also need to be taken into account. If you have the gut and experience in this matter, then you can find and grow the future champion.

Very often in the ads you can find the following wording: "promising puppies for exhibitions", but, unfortunately, the degree of their prospects is difficult to predict even if there are long and interesting pedigrees.

If you approach the issue of choosing a puppy very seriously, you need to ask the breeders not only the pedigree of the puppy's parents, but also a certificate of their validation for the suitability for breeding. Also, an official act of checking the litter, which is compiled by specialists, is very desirable. A lot can be said about studying the previous litters of the puppy's mother, if this is her first litter, then it is necessary to study her mother's offspring.

Agree, the choice of a thoroughbred puppy is not an easy task, but after all, you choose a friend and a defender, and maybe an assistant for the service, so you need to take this matter responsibly. If you choose a puppy without a pedigree and without appropriate examinations of parents and litter, you can buy a dog with vices of character, exterior and, even more sadly, with hereditary diseases.

A German dog is distinguished for its devotion, for this reason it is best to take a small puppy at the age of 1 to 3 months. In the future, it will be difficult for you to accustom yourself to a teenager and especially an adult dog.

Read also the article " How to choose a German Shepherd puppy? «

Price of puppies

Цена щенков Puppies of the German Shepherd with a pedigree cost from 15 thousand rubles and above . Much depends on the uniqueness of the genetic potential of the breed line and its prospects. Also, in the price, various examinations are usually laid, for example, on hereditary diseases.

In a word, the more puppy's documents confirming his thoroughbredness and excellent health, the more expensive it will be. Do not forget about the interests of the breeders, some of them adhere to democratic quotations and are ready to sell the puppy to the person interested in breeding the breed at a low cost, provided they participate in exhibitions and breeding work.

There is always a chance to buy an excellent puppy on terms of an installment plan. If you just need a reliable watchman without documents, then its value will vary between 5-10 thousand rubles.

Articles about the breed


  1. And still the Doberman is better.
    1 strong
    2 beautiful
    3 almost do not shed, they only need to be combed once a week
    4 is more refined
    5 muscular ...

  2. If you like ferocious, then you brought a bull for fighting. A shepherd is a good friend


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