Classification of dog breeds

When choosing a dog, it should be remembered that each breed has its own purpose, all animals have different indicators of temperament and appearance. For this reason, experts decided to divide the animals into different groups, taking into account similar qualities. The classification of dog breeds is very different, in particular, they distinguish such a division:

  • According to the IFC version;
  • By name ;
  • By parameters;
  • By the degree of popularity;
  • By type of wool cover;
  • Hypoallergenic;
  • By growth.

We bring to your attention familiarization with these types of classifications.

How does an animal classify animals

In this organization, animals are divided according to their origin and performance indicators.

  • 1 group - she includes shepherds and cattle dogs (but except for Swiss cattle). The first group also includes different types of sheep dogs. The main goal with which these animals were derived was working together with the shepherds.
  • 2 group - represented by Schnauzer and Pincheraim, Swiss and other cattle-breeding dogs. In the group there is a division into sections: pinchers, Molossians, Swiss mountain and shepherd dogs. All of them are excellent watchmen, and they are also remarkable companions.
  • 3 group - it includes terriers (large, small and medium types). Also act as excellent hunters and companions.
  • 4 group - taxes. This is a unique breed, because it has several types of woolen cover. Also, animals are divided according to their parameters. The original goal of breeding dachshunds is hunting for nest animals.
  • 5 group - it consists of primitive dogs and spitz. By sections, you can find northern sledges, northern shepherds and guard, Scandinavian hunting, primitive and Asian Spitz. Most of the rocks were formed without human influence.
  • 6 group - represented by the hounds, on the blood trace plus related. There are sizes. Breeding animals are represented by working dogs, which are excellent hunters.
  • The 7th group is represented by hunters. These are all animals with a developed hunting instinct. In total, there are three main sections with subgroups: English and Irish setters, and also continental cops.
  • 8 group - it includes a retriever, a water dog and a spaniel. The main goal of breeding animals - hunting for game, but today the dogs have turned more into friends and companions.
  • 9 group - is represented by room-decorative dogs. For them, it is important to have an outward appeal and to be distinguished by a benevolent temper (10 sections).
  • Group 10 - Greyhounds. Combine the physical strength and endurance, while there is an elegant constitution. Are excellent hunters.
  • 11 group - it includes animals that have not received official recognition from the RCV, but which at the same time are not included in the official list of the ICF.

Classification of dogs by parameters

Small breeds of dogs (body weight does not reach 12 kg, and height - less than 28 cm). Most of them are represented by pets. In the case of dachshunds and terriers, animals, thanks to small parameters, can easily squeeze into the hole of the prey, so they have a high degree of popularity among hunters.

Small dogs are easy to keep in apartments, they are able to find a common language with other animals and babies, if properly educated. The content is not difficult and does not require significant financial expenditure.

But together with small dimensions, there is excessive excitability of animals. Therefore, the right training from the earliest childhood is important. Small dogs often have bad teeth and are prone to allergic reactions.

From typical small dogs it is possible to name:

  • Chihuahua;
  • Russian Toy;
  • Japanese chin;
  • Small spitz (orange);
  • Japanese chin;
  • Yorkshire terrier.

Medium breeds of dogs (body weight fluctuates around 12-25 kg, height is 28-60 cm). They are the most widespread and universal category. From typical representatives it is possible to name the hunting dog, service and decorative. Also the group is represented by poodles, English cocker spaniels, beagles. For hunting purposes, they are almost not used, they are inclined to strongly shed.

For average dogs, the presence of articular pathologies, as well as pathologies of skeleton formation, is typical.

Large breeds (body weight - up to 25 kg, height - not more than 60 cm). The animals were taken out to provide protection or protection, and also as assistants for shepherds.

Classification of large breeds of dogs is presented:

  • Caucasian Shepherd Dog;
  • The Great Dane;
  • St. Bernard;
  • Russian black terrier;
  • Irish Wolfhound.

Great physical strength and the characteristics of the nervous system often cause certain problems for the owners. From the negative side, too, there is an abundance of wool cover.

Of the pluses, one can call the greater equanimity of relatively small congeners. Dogs tend to take care of their energy and do not waste it on small stimuli. For large dogs, the presence of genetic or acquired diseases of the hip is typical.

Alternative classification by size

  • Very small (body weight up to 5 kg, height does not exceed 30 centimeters) - represented by a rabbit tax (2-3 kilograms, 12-16 centimeters), a papillon (2.5 to 5 kilograms, 20-28 centimeters), Pekingese (from 3 to 3.5 kilograms, 15-25 centimeters), Yorkshire terriers (from 2 to 3.5 kg, 17-23 centimeters).
  • Small (body weight varies from 5 to 10 kg, and the growth varies 30 to 40 cm). Typical representatives: siba (weight from 8 to 10 kilograms, height 35-41 centimeters), Japanese spitz (5-10 kilograms, 30-40 centimeters, zwergschnauzer (from 4 to 8 kg, 30-35 centimeters), schipperke (from 4 Up to 7 kg, from 27 to 33 centimeters).
  • Average (weigh from 10 to 20 kg, the growth ranges from 40-56 centimeters). Typical representatives: bearded collies (18-20 kilograms, 50-54 centimeters), shar pei (18-25 kilograms, 45-50 centimeters), kerry blue terriers (13 to 18 kilograms, 42-49 centimeters), Australian kelpies (11 -20 kilograms, 43-51 centimeters).
  • Large (body weight 20-30 kg, growth within the limits of 56-65 centimeters). This category is represented in the form of the airedale terriers (20-30 kg, height 56-65 cm), boxers (25-30 kg, height 53-65 cm), collies (23-34 kg, height from 56 to 61 centimeters, kurtzhaar (20 -32 kilograms, the growth of 53-64 centimeters).
  • Very large (the weight of animals starts from 50 kg, height - from 60 cm). It is represented by: English mastiffs (80-90 kg, height 70-80 centimeters), bullmastiffs (45-60 kilograms, height 61-63 centimeters), Newfoundlands (50-75 kilograms, 66-71 centimeters), South Russian shepherds (49-55 Kg, 61-64 cm).

Popular breeds

In addition to the above, a classification of dog breeds according to the degree of popularity is also proposed. This group is represented by:

  1. Yorkshire terriers;
  2. Beagles;
  3. Jack cleared the terriers;
  4. German shepherds;
  5. Chihuahua;
  6. French Bulldogs;
  7. Pomeranian Spitz;
  8. Pugs;
  9. Rottweilers;
  10. Bull Terrier.

According to statistics, the advantage is given to small animals. In addition, the popularity will be influenced by lighting in the multimedia space (movies, literature).

Classification of dog breeds by type of wool cover

This classification is necessary to divide the animals according to the degree of grooming (i.e., frequency of washing, haircuts, combing, trimming and other procedures). In order for the dog to be healthy, it is important to provide it with a full-fledged care.

In general, the type of wool cover is determined by the following factors:

  1. Indicators of hairlessness;
  2. Nature of overgrowth;
  3. Thickness of hairs;
  4. The length of the hairs;
  5. Degrees of crimps of hairs.

As a result of various combinations, the degree of variety of the coat of dogs is determined. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with these characteristics in more detail.

1. The index of hairlessness . Due to the numerous mutations that occurred in dogs, there was such a thing as hairlessness. To date, very many breeds are bare (devoid of woolen cover). The classification of dog breeds by this feature is represented by the following types of dogs: Peruvian orchids, xolottskuintli, Abyssinian desert dogs, Turkish greyhounds, African elephant dogs, Indian Rampur dogs, Chinese crested breeds, American naked terriers, etc.)

2. Type of adulthood. There are significant differences in this indicator. In some dogs, the wool cover has approximately the same length, while in others the density differs in specific parts of the body. According to the type of overgrowth, dogs have wool of "wild" type, "broodastic" type, and also of mixed type.

A number of breeds, similar in appearance to their wild relatives - for example, sheep dogs, huskies, etc. There is a "wild" or "normal" type of wool cover in the form of a two-level fur. Plus is characterized by the presence of undercoat, texture differences on certain parts of the trunk. Among the latter, one can call a short coat in the region of the paws and muzzle, which extends at the withers, on the back, upper and hind legs, and also on the sides and in the tail area. This is how the woolen cover is distributed among wild animals.

"Birdy" dogs have uniform overgrowth along the whole length of the body, as well as in the area of ​​muzzles and paws (commanders, poodles, soft terriers, shichtsu, South Russian shepherds, etc.) For pond animals, careful care for the wool coat will be required than in the case of " Wild "type.

For dogs of intermediate type of wool cover, the same distribution of hair along the body and extremities is characteristic. At the same time, the wool in the muzzle area is shorter (whiskers and beards may appear). Typical representatives of breeds of intermediate dogs are cockerels, other spaniels, Afghans and others.

3. The degree of length of the hairs. This is another indicator that is determining in the type of wool. All dogs are divided into long-haired, short-haired, as well as animals with an average length of wool cover.

For long-haired breeds, characteristic differences in the cover hair and undercoat were preserved (collies, retrievers, Newfoundlands). Undercoat can be completely absent, as, for example, in setters. The hairs of the longest-haired dogs (afghans, yorks, maltese, shih tzu) practically do not differ from the undercoat and strongly resemble human.

4. Degree of thickness of hairs. Dogs are also divided by the thickness of the hair and the degree of their stiffness. There are also differences in the degree of fit to the body. Select smooth-haired and wire-haired dogs. The second group includes schnauzers, coarse-wool terriers (foxes, erdeli, etc.), wire-haired dachshunds, griffins and so on.

The woolly covering of the haired dogs has typical features that affect the proper performance of grooming. For example, the hairs of the hairs have a very special structure: in the region of the ends they are thin, in the middle - thick and again thin to the base. There are straight or broken hairs. They are able to provide a soft and short undercoat.

Caring for tough hair is easy, because it does not get wet, it's easy to clean. Such hairs tend to persist for a long time in the follicles, and do not fall out during their withering. Due to this, the woolly dogs practically do not shed (they need to perform the trimming procedure).

Pets for Allergies

If you or your loved ones are suffering from asthma, as well as other similar pathologies, get a representative of one of the hypoallergenic rocks. It can be naked Mexican dogs, lap-dogs (maltese), American naked terriers.

Animals for allergy sufferers should be devoid of molting. The ideal option, when they do not have a wool cover at all. Do not use animals that are characterized by excessive saliva. In the representatives of smooth-coat breeds, the hairs are very thin, they are great irritants for the mucous membranes, than the hard wool.

Now you know what kind of classification dog breeds are. So, to choose a dog for yourself will become even easier, and you will be sure that it will not give you unnecessary trouble.


On the site we classified the breeds into groups:

For children | The smartest | House Dogs | Hypoallergenic
Official dogs | Watchtowers | To protect | For protection
Fighting | Hunting | Species | Sledge

See the list of breeds of dogs from A to Z in alphabetical order (568 titles) .


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