Jack Russell Terrier is a breed of hunting dogs. It is a reliable companion and a passionate rat-catcher, capable of guard or guard duty. It is very popular with English farmers. His hunting task is to find a beast in the hole, drive it to the surface or pull it out with a strong grip.
At the end of the 18th century, parfors hunting for foxes was popular in Europe. Crowds of horsemen with faithful foxhounds to exhaustion chased the beasts. But sometimes a fox, surrounded on all sides, managed to dive into the saving mink. Then the ancestors of the Jack Russell Terriers came to the arena.
From miniature dogs , which were called fox terriers , the final of the hunt depended. The rider carefully took the pet out of the bag and sent it to the hole. A couple of minutes of barking, a furious snort - and the poor fox jumped straight to the pursuers.
Jack Russell Terrier
|Tendency to training|
|Attitudes towards children|
History of the appearance of the Jack-Russel Terrier
With the breeding of the fox-terriers, special attention was paid to the endurance and anger of the dog to the beast being driven. Therefore, the first representatives of fox terriers were not too attractive: a roughly cut body, a short neck, a wide head.
Everything changed in 1859, when dog breeders and hunters of England were carried away by exhibitions. The appearance of dogs became as important as their performance. The fox terriers gradually became elegant and compact.
In 1870 there was the Kennel Club, which was supposed to regulate all breeds, paint their standards and control the breeding activity. At that time fox terriers were officially recognized.
In 10 years the breed became so popular that it was one fifth at the exhibitions among the participants and always attracted the attention of more than half of the audience. But the exhibition selection seriously changed the appearance of dogs and affected their hunting qualities.
At the height of contradictions
The foxes had a deep chest and straight shoulders, and the head became narrow and long. Updated anatomy did not allow such pets to participate in the normal hunt - even with the presence of natural malice for the beast, they lacked the skill and endurance. At the same time, working dogs, bred by hunters, could not even dream of an exhibition career. They were not even allowed to participate. Therefore, the owners of old hunting lines and new show nurseries, to put it mildly, did not like each other.
Among the famous owners of terriers Jack Russell, many palace people: Prince Charles, King Edward the 7th, Sarah Ferguson. Also this breed was chosen by singers Mariah Carey and Bette Midler, actors Audrey Hepburn, Michael Douglas and Jim Carrey.
How the rocks were divided
"True working terriers differ from existing show dogs, like a wild rose is different from a garden, but there are more charms and naturalness in them" - so revered the Reverend Jack Russell of Devonshire. He was a famous breeder of hunting terriers, the founder of the British Kennel Club and a judge at dog shows.
His pets, he never showed at exhibitions, and to change the appearance of dogs for the sake of fashion treated with disapproval. Fortunately, the time was right for everyone: the fox terriers turned from hunting dogs into podium smarties, and the Parsons-Russell Terriers and Jack Russell Terriers created by the Reverend kept their working qualities and acquired a special charm.
Found on the market
His first terrier Russell bought in 1814. The guy was only 19 then. He began a church career and was carried away by hunting foxes. Rev. Jack was unaware that he would not succeed as a priest, but he would give away dog breeding for as long as 65 years of his life.
The progenitor of Jack Russell Terriers was a white smooth-haired dog with a strong physique and a bright temperament. This dog, like a fox, Reverend Russell saw by chance on the market. He managed to buy the dog from the owner of the milkman. The dog named Trump, i.e. Trump in English, turned out to be a noble and clever hunter. At the same time he did not look like untidy Scottish terriers with short paws and shaggy hair. With him, the pastor started breeding, taking his ideal pet for the model.
Although modern jack russell terriers have been greatly reduced in height and weight compared to their glorious ancestors, they can still participate in hunting. These low dogs are excellent not only with small rodents, but also with badgers and foxes. The record holder was Jack Russell Terrier named Vampire: this agile dog from the UK destroyed in 1997 a ton of rats.
Dogs of the Reverend Jack
About Trump, the ancestor of the Jack-Russel Terrier breed, heard every breeder, but there is no precise information about the other ancestors. Possibly, Russell crossed monophonic and motley terriers. Breeds of the breed tribe include fox terriers, boarders and leelands. There are suggestions that the breeding was also attended by bull terriers and small beagles.
The priest did not care about the appearance of his pets. He was not interested in color, wool structure, or head structure. The ideal of Jack Russell was a normal dog that could easily sweep across the entire hunting range for hours. The Reverend wanted to create a hardy and balanced pet that would peacefully treat other kindreds.
He wanted the body of the dogs to be maneuverable so that the jaws had a good grip, and the ears closed the shell from blockage, and that the voice was loud and sonorous.
Pastor Jack Russell's terriers quickly gained popularity, and their master became respected in hunting circles. The dogs of the monk fearlessly hunted and were strong enough to keep up with the pack. And they were pretty clever and felt where you can cut a corner to catch the hounds. Many hunters outside Devonshire wanted to get such a terrier.
Jack Russell Terrier Australians are traditionally called the Australian Jack Russell. In America, the long-legged terrier Russell's name is the same as in the whole world - Jack Russell Terriers. And even the Parson Russell Terriers brought here from England are registered under this name.
The appearance of short-legs
After the death of Pastor Russell, his case was continued by Arthur Heinemann. He was the secretary of the Parsons-Jack Russell Terrier Club and was fond of hunting badgers, so he put a lot of effort into maintaining the working qualities of the breed. In 1904 he formulated the first standard. At the time, as time began to debate about the short-legged nerd terriers.
Horse hunt with a pack of hounds gradually went into oblivion. Previously, it was conducted on agricultural land, but at the beginning of the century they were divided into sections and blocked by barbed wire. The rest of the north-west of England was rocky and was not suitable for pursuing horses. Therefore, lovers of animal hunting began to hunt.
For them, a new type of terrier was introduced - short-legged. He was slower than his tall brother, but he became sturdier and fiercer. Dachshunds and welsh corgi also participated in breeding.
The number of shorts grew, but they did not match the standard, and Russell's followers hardly used them in breeding. At the shows, only a long-legged type was shown, called the Parson-Jack Russell Terrier. The short-legged species was considered undesirable and almost did not develop.
The road to recognition
Although the popularity of short-legged puppies was great, they could not compete at exhibitions with slender, tall and sturdy Parson-rassylter terriers. The breed simply did not want to notice. But in 1965 several short-legged individuals without a pedigree were brought to Australia.
Local breeders were interested in a wonderful breed. There was no parfors hunting for the fox, so the working qualities of the dogs were of no interest to anyone. And although the funny little pets cheerfully chewed, dug up rabbit holes and chased the mice, they were looked upon only as loyal family pets and dog show participants.
Breeders carefully perfected the undersized Russell terriers. In 1972, a club of rock lovers was created, which was registered as a Jack Russell Terrier. Shortcuts have received an official name and recognition on a distant continent. By 1988, in the breeding book, there were registered 1977 individuals.
These successes could not be overlooked in the International Cynological Federation. In 1990, at the request of the Australians and the British, the shortcuts were included in a single standard for both varieties. And only 11 years later the breed was divided into two. Dogs with short legs and a stretched torso received a name from the Austro-standard - Jack Russell Terrier.
Breed standard: basic characteristics
All jack-russel terriers of the modern type are dominated by white color, which is diluted with marks of red or black. Red spots can have different shades. The wool of these small dogs is smooth, with a broken or stiff. It still protects them well from bad weather if the breed is used for hunting.
The chest of Jack Russell Terriers is deep, but not wide. This is important when working in a burrow. The body is flexible and strong. The tail is standing upright when driving. Usually it is cut to the level of the ears. The ideal height of an adult pet is from 25 to 30 cm. The skull of these brisk hunters is flat. The transition from the forehead to the muzzle is pronounced. The muzzle narrows to the mouth.
Although the exterior of jack-russell terriers is a little unsightly, the breed began to often hit the set. It turned out that she is very photo and cynogenic. Our viewers know her from the movie "The Mask" with Jim Carrey.
True Hollywood glory has become a headache for breeders. On the screen, the jack russell terriers are nice, funny, restless, smart and obedient. But the nature of real pets differs from the image created by cinematographers. In fact, they are not angels. And ideal obedience can be achieved only with the help of early socialization and literate upbringing.
The natural catcher
The passion for catching animals has transformed this breed into a love for games with balls, frisbee and other objects. Not surprisingly, in 2011, the Australian Jack Russell Terrier named Anastasia was in the Guinness Book of Records. Yuri malyutka managed to burst 100 balloons in just 44, 49 seconds.
The character of Jack Russell Terrier
From the rest of the terriers, dogs of this breed generally have a more balanced behavior. They are more affectionate and compliant, less bark. They willingly study and follow the owner everywhere. They are unpretentious and very hardy. In the UK, mini-agility Jack Rassley Terriers are real leaders. They love this sport, they gladly perform the commands.
If the dog has sufficient physical activity, there are no problems with it. Jack scattered the terriers have an independent and determined character and at the same time they are playful and fun.
In training, it is necessary to show patience and perseverance, then there will be positive results.
In relation to children, this dog is friendly, especially if they grow together. However, Russell can be aggressive with other dogs. Therefore, early socialization is very important for him.
Do not lose sight of the fact that this is a dog with a strong hunting instinct and therefore, as a rule, does not get along well with small domestic animals, including cats. Especially rabies and decorative rats can suffer from it.
Jack rassly terrier should always be in business. If he gets bored, he can start to damage things, dig the floor, bark, behave uncontrollably. The dog is tedious to regularly train and give to participate in any competitions.
Despite its small size, it is not a hand dog, but an independent hunter. He loves a change of scenery, curious. This active dog does not suit everyone, for example, it will be hard for older people to cope with it.
Jack Russell Terriers love to bark loudly. In the absence of proper education, they often show their independent nature. These dogs are very wary of strangers to strangers, and aggressively towards their kindred. And, of course, they love to run after cats. Therefore on walks it is necessary to keep the pet on a leash and to release only in quiet and familiar places. If two representatives of the breed live in the apartment, then they should not be left alone alone. They will quarrel and fight. This hot-tempered dog zealously protects personal territory and feeds the owner with proprietary feelings.
Such pets are very energetic. They need a lot of running and jumping. And when the walks are short and uninteresting, the dog will be entertained chewing on the things of the owners. In addition, Jack Russell Terriers are very jumping: if they wish, they can swing through a rather high fence. If the jump does not work, the pet will remember the experience of the ancestors and make a digging.
In a word, it will not be possible to start bringing up a pet for nothing. In consolation, it can be noted that all the representatives of the breed are very intelligent. They need intellectual load. They are easy to learn, but during training dogs can be stubborn. You need to keep the dynamics, alternating between different commands, and also use positive reinforcement.
Maintenance and care
This breed of dogs can safely be kept both in a country house, and in a city apartment. If she lives in the city, she should have enough physical activity. In dangerous places (near motorways), the settlement must be taken on a leash, because, having submitted to the hunting instinct, it may not obey the order of the master.
Jacks wool is of three types: stiff, smooth and intermediate. On this depends the features of care for her. As a rule, the dog is cleaned with a rigid mitten, combed, and trimming .
When a pet lives on the street, molting takes place twice a year. But the domestic dog will shed almost constantly. Noticeable white wool is quite difficult to remove from furniture. Therefore, you have to comb out the dog. Moreover, do this carefully and regularly.
Wirehair dogs should be trimmed: pluck out dead hair with a special knife. This procedure is quite delicate. An untrained owner can accidentally damage the animal's skin, so it is recommended to entrust the job to a professional groomer.
Often you can not bathe him. His hair repels dirt and does not need to wash off this natural lubricant. After walking in the contaminated areas, it is enough to simply wipe the paws and places of contamination with special cleaning cloths or a damp towel.
Girls need to bathe after the termination of estrus. Also before each exhibition are bathing exhibition dogs.
The breed occasionally has problems with the eyes, joints, heart disease, and epilepsy. But, as a rule, the pet is rather energetic and strong. There is a history of Jack Russell Terrier named Boti. In 1979, its owners went to a three-year expedition. They did not want to leave the pet, so they took the dog with them. She reached Antarctica and the Arctic and visited both poles of the earth. On the boat, Boti had fun with ball games, and on the pole played catch-up with the penguins. To make the python not frozen, she was sewn a special woolen coat and a knitted hat. Returning to England, Boti was recognized as a pet of the year.
Training and education - you need a special approach!
In short, if you prefer to spend your free time on the couch with a book, Jack Russell Terrier will not share your passion. He needs active fun and participation in all the affairs of the owner. This restless breed will suit a gambler and a cheerful person who prefers long walks, sports and travel. Fortunately, this small pet is easy to transport and keep indoors.
Jack Russell Terrier is a dog that requires a special approach. But if you find enough time for education and games, you will gain a cheerful, fearless and loyal friend with a balanced character.
Jack Russell Terrier Health
Jack Russell Terriers live about 15 years. This is a fairly hardy breed with good health. Although he also has diseases that are most common. Among such diseases, hip dysplasia, Leggate-Perthes disease (osteochondropathy of the head of the femur), congenital deafness, an anomaly of the eyes, called the "collie eyes".
Price of puppies
Depending on the purity of the pedigree and the possible future of the dog, the puppies of the Jack Russell Terrier can cost from $ 260 to $ 1,000.