For most dog lovers, the breed of Eastern European Shepherd is closely related to the German Shepherd, many even believe that this is one breed. In fact, the truth is there, the fact is that the German shepherd is the direct ancestor of the BEE, which took shape as an independent breed in the territory of the Soviet Union. This transformation was connected with the purposeful activity of Soviet cynologists. A certain role was played by the influence of a different climate than in Germany on the formation of the breed, but the main importance still had purposeful work of people.
The working qualities of the German Shepherd were evaluated in many states, but because of the negative attitude after the First World War to everything that had German roots, this breed was renamed and modified. Special success in working with the breed was achieved precisely by Soviet cynologists, since the young state needed working strong dogs. Therefore, the breeding of a new breed was not just an amateur hobby, but a task that was posed by the Soviet authorities to professional cynologists.
In 1924 in Moscow the nursery "Red Star" was created, in which work began on the creation of a new breed on the basis of the blood of a German shepherd. Due to insufficient funding of this industry and the inability to buy import producers for currency, a massive infusion of new blood occurred only in 1945. After the end of the Second World War, many Soviet German shepherds appeared in Soviet nurseries, actively used in selection work.
The cynologists set a goal to create a breed that would be distinguished by behavioral reactions from the German shepherd and would be more massive and hardy, and they succeeded. Despite the external similarity, which also traced a number of differences, the "easterners" are very different from the "Germans" behavior and character. It also had to become a more universal dog, suitable for use throughout the Soviet Union, from the southern Asian territories to Kamchatka.
After the end of the Great Patriotic War, General GP. Medvedev offered to officially recognize the new domestic breed and give it the name of the Eastern European Shepherd. For heroism and merit in the course of the war, she was called the most patriotic dog. The first BEE standard was adopted in 1964, the next standard with some additions was recognized in 1976. It is characteristic that this breed was a domestic subspecies of the German shepherd, that is, there was no separation of these two breeds into two separate ones. Breeding work on improving the breed was actively conducted until 1990, then came a turning point in the history of the East European Shepherd Dog.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, many of its achievements have been questioned and criticized. This fate was not avoided by the "Easterners" who, from someone else's filing, became associated with Stalin's repressions. Although the track record of this breed was much wider: in the years of the Second World War they were messengers, mine detectors, later used for service at the borders, in rescue operations, in the search for explosives, for protecting people and their property.
Nevertheless, in 1991 at the world level the German shepherd was recognized, which received the international standard for FCI. This fact immediately placed the BWO in an illegal position, and even attempts were made to completely eliminate the breed. Representatives of this breed were simply excluded from the cynological clubs and associations, were not allowed to exhibitions as non-pedigree dogs. Only thanks to the efforts of true connoisseurs of "ecstasy" who genuinely loved these dogs, it was possible to preserve an interesting breed. They continued to breed BEE in private nurseries, in clubs, held their own mono-breed shows. It can even be said that this "black" period in the history of the breed also made a positive contribution to its development, since all random people, whose interest was associated with greed, left the breeding.
The response to the beginning of the persecution of the breed was the formation in 1991 of the "Association of Pedigree Nursery Breeders". In 1999, the United Pedigree Book of the VEO Knitting Patterns appeared. The breed continued to develop actively, not only in terms of exterior characteristics, but first of all, the training and development of unique service qualities continued.
The activity of the connoisseurs of the breed led to the fact that it was preserved, the number of the "Easterners" population slowly but surely grew, and gradually they were recognized by the cynological associations of Russia. The result of this activity was the recognition of the Eastern European Shepherd as an independent breed by the cynological organization of the RKF in 2002. The official standard was approved, and the breed was returned to former respect and honor.
Representatives of the breed of the VEO have created a beloved image of our faithful friend in such films as "Border Dog of Scarlet", " Faithful Ruslan ", "To Me, Mukhtar!" In our country. In the last film, two brothers Vargun Lutar and Duncan Lutar were shot.
- The BEE standard: basic characteristics, color
- What is the difference between the Eastern European Shepherd and the German Shepherd?
- Nature of the breed
- Education and training
- Maintenance and care of HEI
- How to choose and buy a good puppy?
- Photo of East European Shepherd Dog
The BEE standard: basic characteristics, color
The Eastern European Shepherd Dog is a large dog above average height: males at the withers - 66-76 cm, bitches - 62-72 cm. The skeleton is strong, but the constitution is not rough, the body is stretched, which is 10-17 cm higher than the height at the withers . Musculature relief and dry. Males are larger and more massive, therefore, it's easy to determine the gender identity in appearance.
The head looks proportional. It is moderately long and massive, in shape resembles a not very pointed wedge. The transition from the forehead to the muzzle is not strongly pronounced, but is noticeable. Dark lips fit tightly to the jaw. The nose of the nose is black. The ears stand in the shape of an isosceles triangle. The eyes are almond-shaped, obliquely set, dark or light-colored in color. Look smart, confident.
Scissor bite. A complete set of 42 teeth. Jaws are well developed.
The neck is strong and muscular.
Chest is oval in shape, the stomach is tightened. The withers are well pronounced.
The back is straight, sturdy. The croup is rounded, smoothly turning to the tail line.
The tail is saber-like, in a quiet state lowered below the hock joint.
Forelegs muscular, located at an angle that provides free movement.
Hind legs straight and parallel, hocks well pronounced, dry.
Paws are rounded, collected in a lump, profitable fingers are removed.
A typical gait is a creeping trot with a strong push of the hind limbs.
The coat is stiff, tight against the skin. The longer coat is on the outside of the forearms and thighs, in the rest of the places the wool is of medium length. A well developed undercoat is well developed.
Color is desirable the following type: black or black with a dark mask on a light background, which varies from light gray to fawn. Also, a deep coloring is allowed, but zone-gray and zone-red color are possible, but less desirable.
Eastern European Shepherds participated in the Victory Parade on Red Square in May 1945, and were recognized as the most patriotic breed of dogs.
What is the difference between the Eastern European Shepherd and the German Shepherd?
Despite the fact that the international cynological federation does not recognize the individuality of the BEE, considering it a variety of the German shepherd, it has many distinctive features. The main differences between these two breeds of sheep dogs:
- The easterners are larger and higher than the Germans,
- The back is not so inclined, the withers just above the sacrum;
- The thorax is wider;
- Movements more sweeping, with a strong support thrust;
- Differences in color: the BEE often has a light background;
- The Easterners are more calm, the Germans are more active and playful;
- Easterners are a universal service dog, they are more suitable for carrying a different service, while Germans are more often acquired as a human companion.
Nature of the breed
The most striking feature of the character of BEE is its focus on its owner. For her, she is ready to give her life, showing miracles of courage and obedience to his will. To outsiders is incredulous, but has a balanced mind and strong nerves, so without the need to show their strength and does not show obvious aggression. At the same time, it has a lightning-fast, actively defensive reaction to a dangerous situation.
The breed is ideal for training and readily demonstrates obedience, not trying to dominate the master and manifest one's independence. The dog will never offend other smaller animals. If the puppy grew up surrounded by other pets from childhood, then, after becoming big and strong, he will not just be friends with them, but even patronize them. "Orienters" are friendly by nature, but they show this quality only in the environment of their family, and when they do not feel danger. The innate instinct of a guard and a defender is developed so strongly that the slightest suspicion of a threat to the owner or his property leads the warrior before the dog into combat readiness.
Dogs of this breed have a very good character in all its manifestations. It is a devoted friend of a person who is always alert, active and ready to protect his master and his family. Eastern European Shepherds love children, can play with them and never offend. But do not forget that all this excellent genetic heritage must be accompanied by proper upbringing, otherwise a dog will grow up that does not correspond to the notions of the character and behavior of the BEE.
In Moscow, on Poklonnaya Hill, there is a bronze monument to a front dog, which became an Eastern European shepherd. During the Great Patriotic War more than 60 thousand dogs of this breed participated in military operations.
Education and training
The natural aspirations of the East-European sheepdog for training must necessarily be developed from the first months of the puppy's life. To begin this process is necessary with the establishment of contact with the puppy, the owner and the dog must learn to understand each other. In order to develop initial obedience skills, it is necessary to give lessons to the puppy at least 15 minutes a day. Anyway at this age the dog will not be able to practice the clock, some puppies and can not concentrate at all on the execution of commands for more than 5 minutes. In this case, you need to divide the total time, for example, to train for 5 minutes in the morning, afternoon and evening.
First, the main stimulus for producing reflexes is food. After completing the command, give the puppy a piece of treats, and soon the reflex of the command execution will be developed, and he will execute it automatically.
From the age of 3 months old the shepherd must be accustomed to obedience while walking. There is always an outside noise in the street, and there can always be some distractions: a cat running, someone's screaming, a car signal. The dog must learn against the background of all this, to carry out the commands of the owner, without being distracted by extraneous impressions.
From 4 months you teach your "orientalist" to overcome barriers, to perform the command of aportation, at the same time you can make tests for the flair, making you look for hidden things by smell. From the age of 5 months, the shepherd needs to develop service qualities, if, of course, you are interested in this. These exercises involve outsiders when the dog is given the task to protect things, pursue and detain the offender. It should be said that many "Orientals" have this knowledge at the genetic level, so the training process is very easy, provided that the experienced owner or instructor. In such staging it is important to create favorable conditions for the puppy so that he always achieves victory. Otherwise, he may have uncertainty in his abilities.
The East European Shepherd dog, having passed the basic training course , should execute the following commands: "To me!", "Nearby!", "Sit!", "Stand!", "Lie!", "Walk!", "Aport!" , "Crawl!", "Place!", "Barrier!". She must also be able to overcome the boom and ladder, not be afraid of shots and not take food from strangers and not pick him up from the ground.
Usually this list of teams already makes a well-educated and disciplined friend from the dog, but you can go even further and go through special training. Typically, this is required if the dog will be involved in the service. Depending on the plans for the use of the East European Shepherd, she is taught the skills of protective guard, search, watchdog and other types of services.
At the Moscow metro station Ploshchad Revolyutsii there is a bronze sculpture Border Guard with a dog of the BEE breed. People believe that if you rub a bronze sheepdog nose or touch the paw, it will bring good luck.
Maintenance and care of HEI
This breed is rather unpretentious, and all that it needs is to provide minimal hygienic procedures, to give regular exercise and to feed properly. Contain the East European Shepherd can be both in the aviary and in the apartment, although due to the size of the dog, of course, the first option is preferable.
The ideal place of detention will be a spacious aviary with a booth, but it should be remembered that if the dog first lived in the house, then it will be difficult to accustom it to life in the cage: it will howl and beg for home. Therefore, you need to immediately determine the place for the dog, and from the first days of its appearance in your home, accustom it to this place.
Sheepdog does not need to be washed thoroughly more than twice a year, and this should be done only if necessary. Usually the dog should be combed regularly and it will look clean and well-groomed. Regular combing is also a kind of useful massage, which improves blood circulation, so do not be lazy to perform this procedure.
Also, do not forget about the care of your teeth, ears and eyes of your pet. If the dog is healthy, then there is no need to do these procedures on a daily basis. But still, once every 2 weeks, you need to clean the dog's ears with a dry cotton swab from excess sulfur. Occasionally, you need to brush your teeth, removing the scurf that leads to the formation of tartar, which only the veterinarian can handle. This is especially important for exhibition dogs, because the condition of the teeth also affects the final evaluation. If the eyes do not disturb, then it is better not to touch them, but when there are discharge from the eyes, you need to remove them with a cotton swab.
Periodically, treat the dog against fleas, especially it is recommended to do at the beginning and end of the flea season: in May-June and then in October. Do not forget to give your pet anthelmintic drugs.
Eastern European Shepherds heroically served in the Chechen war. In the city of Primorsk-Akhtarsk there is a monument to the dog Elge, who saved dozens of human lives, discovering mines and ammunition depots of militants.
The Eastern European Shepherd needs to be provided with a well-balanced diet. Do it with natural fodder is not easy, because the main diet of the dog is protein, which means that a significant percentage of food is in meat products. Useful and porridge, vegetables, greens, dairy products, but still slightly boiled meat should prevail in the diet. Very useful marine fish, especially puppies. River fish in raw form can not be given, as this leads to infection by parasites. Milk is useful for puppies in small quantities, but adult dogs are contraindicated, but they recommend dairy products: kefir and fermented baked milk. It is not easy to make a balanced menu for a large dog, so many owners make their task easier and choose a ready dry food.
How to choose and buy a good puppy?
Due to the fact that not so long ago the East-European sheepdog was tried to be liquidated as a breed, there are some difficulties with the acquisition of puppies. Often people who want to buy a sheepdog do not understand the difference between "Germans" and "Easters", and they buy the "German", thinking that it is a VEO, or they acquire a half-breed. In a word, if you really want to buy an "oriental", then you need to contact specialized nurseries, which trace the pedigree of dogs and keep a strict record of all matings and litters. Buying a shepherd on the ad or in the market, it is difficult to obtain reliable information about its origin.
For interested people it will not be a problem to visit a monopedigree exhibition or find videos from this exhibition. So you can find exemplary breed representatives, contact their owners, learn about the planned matings. If you approach this issue seriously, you can always purchase a thoroughbred Eastern European shepherd, even if you have to wait a few months in anticipation of the birth of the puppies. The easier way is to follow the announcements on the nursery sites and negotiate with the breeders about booking and purchasing puppies.
Prices for puppies
Puppies East-European Shepherd with documents RKF are from 15 thousand rubles and above . Much depends on the presence in the family tree of eminent ancestors, awards at exhibitions, and the service merit of parents. More affordable prices: from 3000 rubles and above, it is said that the puppy's parents do not have a pedigree. In this case, there is also a chance to acquire a good dog with all the typical characteristics of the breed, but this is already a risk, since it is possible to buy a mestizo or not a VEO, but a German shepherd. Therefore, if the choice of "east" for you is basic, it is better to spend more money, but to get the guarantees of your friend's thoroughbredness.