Learn about the standard and temperament of Dobermann. See what he likes, his description, characteristics. Look at the Doberman breed photo.
The history of Doberman breed began in the late 19th century. It would seem that such a close to modernity should have deprived the history of the breed of riddles and secrets. But still there is plenty of mystery and mystery in it. This is due to the fact that the breeder did not keep any records of breeding work. Therefore, his followers had only to guess in the features of the Dobermann of his ancestors.
|Tendency to training|
|Attitudes towards children|
Friedrich Luis Doberman became the creator of this popular breed. Who was this great man who managed to make a significant contribution to cynology? He lived in Germany and worked as a tax collector and night policeman. It's not difficult to guess that not everyone wanted to pay taxes, and Mr. Doberman had to think about how to improve the efficiency of his work and at the same time protect himself from possible incidents with aggressively minded debtors and secure his movement around the country with a large amount of collected money.
Doberman spent his free time working in the shelter for stray dogs, but neither among the inhabitants of the shelter, nor among the known breeds at the time, he could not find the ideal of a loyal guard. Then he thought about taking the initiative into his own hands and bringing out the breed itself, which fully corresponded to his ideas about the ideal.
To begin with, he began to attend fairs in his hometown of Apolda in Thuringia, in the south of Germany. Various animals, including dogs, were sold here. At one of the exhibitions, he bought a pair of Old German pinschers, from which the Bismark bitch was born, which was used for breeding. This is one of the few facts that are for certain known. On the participation of other breeds there are no exact sources, which has caused numerous disputes among dog breeders. Among the possible ancestors of Doberman are: shepherd dogs, Manchester terrier, greyhound , blue dog, butchers black and tan dogs.
Friedrich Dobermann was not a professional breeder, but at the same time he achieved not only an impressive but also very fast result. Literally in a couple of decades he had dogs of one breed type, ferocious and fearless. Of course, they were somewhat different from the modern Doberman look, were more clumsy and stocky, possessed overactivity and increased malice.
Subsequently, Doberman's success was explained in different ways. Some researchers believed that he was just lucky, others, that he set himself a specific goal and achieved it thanks to a competently constructed selection work. Initially, for breeding selected similar types of dogs, so the desired result turned out so quickly.
Already in the 1870's. There were dogs whom Doberman himself called Thuringian pinschers. They became popular among the inhabitants of the city of Apolda, and then beyond. They were bought to serve in the police, as bodyguards and watchmen. The glory of the fearless and malicious Thuringian pinschers spread very quickly due to the fact that Mr. Doberman's dogs were indeed of great practical value. They could engage in various activities, had a lightning response and increased speed, were hardy and did not require special care.
In 1894, the father of the breed, Friedrich Luis Doberman, died, and after that the breed he created was called the Doberman Pinscher. Subsequently, the word pinscher was also removed from the name and the breed's name repeated exactly the name of its creator. This is the only breed in the world, named after a man who completely owns the glory of the creator of a new kind of dog. Such success is explained by the fact that Doberman managed to bring out the demanded breed, which fully met the requirements of modernity.
Continued the case of the "father of the breed" Otto Geller, who decided to somewhat soften the evil nature of the Dobermans, believing that it would prevent the wide spread of the breed. This man made the Dobermans as we know them now: excellent guards, but obedient and compliant in dealing with the master.
In 1897 there was a special show of Dobermans - the first official presentation of the breed. The number of breeders grew, which led to the emergence of the club "Doberman Pinscher of the City of Apolda" under the leadership of Otto Geller. Over the following year, the number of fans of the breed so increased that the club was renamed the "National Club Dobermann Pinscher Germany."
After the official association of breeders, the history of the development of the breed is already clearly traced through tribal books. In Germany by the beginning of the 20th century there were already about 1000 breeders of this popular breed. Conquering their homeland, Dobermans went to conquer the world. They spread across the US, where they were called devil dogs, in Canada, Britain, Sweden and other countries.
In 1902, the first Dobermans appeared in Russia, and they were immediately used as search dogs for police service. In 1960, the breed was recognized as an international cynological association.
In Russia, Dobermans became recognized leaders of the search service. It was with this breed began the development of official dog breeding. Now Russian Dobermanns are high class dogs, who repeatedly became winners at international exhibitions.
Monuments of the breed
On the island of Guam there is a monument "Always Faithful" in honor of 25 Dobermans who gave their lives for the liberation of the island in 1944.
In the city of Apolda there is a monument depicting the family of Dobermans.
Doberman breed standard: basic characteristics
Standard No. 143 of Doberman breed according to FCI, adopted in 1990.
The general view is an elegant strong dog with well-developed muscles, but without rudeness and massiveness. This graceful animal, whose body corresponds to the ideal anatomical proportions.
The height at the withers for males is 68 - 72 cm, for females - 63-68 cm. Medium-sized dogs are preferable to very large dogs. Dogs weigh 40-45 kg, bitches - 32-35 kg. The format of the dog is more square than elongated: the length of the body can not exceed the height at the withers by more than 5% in males.
The skull is strong, commensurate with the general proportions. The head line looks like a blunt wedge when viewed from above. The muscles on the head are highly developed, which gives it a fry without cheek. The transition from the forehead to the muzzle is well pronounced.
Nose is wide, not round, black in black dogs, and lighter in brown. The muzzle is deep, well developed, the mouth slit is cut to the molars.
The cheeks are visible muscles, they are tightened and can not be convex or saggy. The lips fit tightly to the jaws, ensuring their tight closure. Jaws are wide and powerful. Scissor bite. Teeth are even and arranged in full accordance with the dental scheme.
The size of the eyes is average, they are of a dark color and oval in shape. In brown dogs, the color of the eyes may be lighter.
Ears stand upright if they are stopped. In some countries, ear cupping is not permitted, in which case they should be of medium size, their anterior edge abutting the cheeks. Ears are set high.
The neck is long and elegant, but strong and muscular. The neck is straight and looks noble.
Withers protruding, defines the beginning of the line of the back. The back and waist are short, the bitch index of elongation of the waist is somewhat longer. The croup looks rounded.
The chest is wide, convex, the ribs protrude slightly.
The stomach is selected.
The tail is highly planted, short-cropped, retaining two caudal vertebrae. In some countries, stopping the tail is prohibited.
The forelimbs are straight, set in relation to the ground perpendicularly, with developed musculature. The length of all parts of the limbs is in harmony with the body. The paws are gathered in a lump.
The hind legs are as strong, due to the developed musculature, the hips look round. The length of the shins and hips is commensurable with the overall proportions.
The skin is tight, with good pigmentation. The coat consists of short hard hair that fits snugly against the skin. Dobermanns do not have an undercoat.
Color black or dark brown with tan marks of rust and reddish-red color. The location of scorching is allowed only in certain areas: on the muzzle on the cheekbones and over the eyelids, on the throat and on the chest, on the paws and inner surfaces of the hips.
The famous writer
Doberman Tref is a police dog that discovered over 1500 crimes in the early 20th century. He wrote about him laudatory essays in Russian and European newspapers, but after his master was shot by the Bolsheviks, he refused to work in the search service.
The character of Dobermanns
The wickedness of Dobermanns is legendary, reinforced by films about the use of these dogs in the police and in the war. For this reason, many people have a lack of confidence in this breed, in particular, they are afraid to start in families where there are children. Of course, we can not say that the Doberman is devoid of aggressiveness, but his psyche is more balanced, and it is easier to control than, for example, fighting dogs.
Some breeders, trying to popularize the breed, upload interesting videos that show that the Doberman is good-natured and gets along well with children and small animals. Why are there two extreme points of view on the character of Dobermanns? One he sees as an extremely dangerous and aggressive dog, others imagine him just an angel with a demonic appearance.
The explanation of Doberman's character should be sought in his history. The first Dobermans were very ferocious, as they were withdrawn for use for official purposes: to protect a person and his property. But later the breeders realized that such a breed, isolated from the broad masses, would not become popular, and began to work on softening the Doberman character. Perhaps this played a huge role in the development of the breed, because in civilized modern states, aggressive breeds of dogs are not respectable, which can be indicated by the ban on their breeding.
Therefore, the modern Doberman is a friendly and peaceful companion of man. He is attached to children and will never offend them. Dobermans do not have the habit of many breeds to ignore those who are weaker. They will never knock the kid off his feet in the rush of games and will not snatch a tasty morsel from his hands. Dobermans are respected by all members of the family of their host, including other domestic pets.
These are dogs, for which moderation is typical in everything: they are moderately spiteful and moderately excitable. Of course, there are incredibly aggressive and nervous Dobermans, but it is rather an exception to the rules of genetics or the result of incorrect education. Uncontrolled malignancy and increased excitability are considered disqualifying defects for this breed.
However, this is not at all weak-willed good-natured. Their kindness towards others comes from their self-reliance, they are good-natured only when they are in a relaxed atmosphere. In case of danger, they instantly change: Dobermans are filled with fighting determination and, without hesitation, rush to help their master. The defensive and fighting instincts in the Dobermans are perfectly developed, and are transmitted at the genetic level, and if they are also backed up by proper training, such a dog will replace an expensive bodyguard.
Doberman is a fine dog for a family that is able to perform official functions to protect and protect people and their property. The breed is very smart, can quickly establish contact with a person and willingly executes his team. Dobermans are devoid of harmfulness and stubbornness, they are always ready to benefit their master. The species is characterized by a state of constant alertness, they are always ready to defend.
The intellectual abilities of the Dobermans are at a high level, they quickly learn and, with proper education, understand the master with a half-word. In general, this dog is human-oriented, it is not peculiar to manifest independence. The psyche in most thoroughbred dogs is balanced, and the likelihood of acquiring an inadequate malicious puppy is extremely low. Although, of course, much depends on education.
Esenin's poem with famous lines: "Give, Jim, luckily a paw to me" is dedicated to Doberman, whose owner was the actor Kachalov.
More information about the character of the Dobermann can be found here .
Upbringing and training of puppies and adult dogs
The fact that you have acquired a serious dog, the Doberman, must be remembered from the first days of its acquisition. The guarantee of exemplary education is the creation of a confidential contact and the definition of a hierarchy in relations with the dog. Doberman should become attached to you, love you and realize that the main thing in your tandem is you, his master, who must obey without question.
Do not try to cover all aspects of upbringing from the first days. Begin with small: training to the place, to the regime of the day, to walks. Especially it is necessary to pay attention to walks. When Dobermans are purchased by people living in private homes, often a dog is not released from the courtyard, or sometimes stays in a deserted place. This is the wrong way, which will disturb the social adaptation of the dog. The puppy must from childhood become accustomed to the noise of crowded streets, to people, to different sounds of the city. Otherwise, when he grows up, he will behave inadequately in such places. If you are a car enthusiast, it is better to immediately teach the puppy to travel in the car, so that he is not afraid of them later.
Dobermans tend to show aggression to unfamiliar dogs, especially like to fight males, so on walks, the owner must take this fact into account, so as not to harm anyone.
Dobermans have a lot of innate abilities that can develop into phenomenal possibilities. For example, they have no equal in the trail work, which the trainer trains on a special program. But to develop these abilities it is necessary already from 2-3 months old puppies. In the game form, make them look for different objects, they like this activity and will help in their further work.
If you just need a well-bred dog, then you need to train her with a standard set of commands. But do not deprive yourself of the opportunity to experience all the joy of owning such a capable dog, like the Doberman. Some owners are surprised to discover that with the dog you can practice very interesting sports: agility, for example. Owners with their active dogs begin to enjoy the competition, which will be of two kinds: the dog is in good physical shape, and the owner is charged with positive energy at such events.
In the MUR kennel, Doberman Ber, the son of the famous Tref, discovered 65 crimes in 1.5 years, the shepherd - only 24.
Care and maintenance of dobermann
Although it is believed that caring for any dog - it's troublesome, but the Doberman breed is very easy to take care of. They do not molt so much, and they can be combed once a week. Instead of frequent bathing it is better to confine yourself to wiping with a damp towel. Dogs are not recommended to bathe more often than several times a year, so as not to disturb the protective functions of their skin.
Doberman is suitable for keeping in apartments, but in a private home he will be fine. The only condition - this dog can not be planted in the yard on a chain and forget about it. Dobermanns need to communicate with a person, they can not live by themselves, lack of attention will necessarily affect their character. Therefore, if your Doberman lives in the cage, organize cognitive walks with him, communicate with him, in a word, pay attention to the dog.
In feeding representatives of this breed are unpretentious. The simplest way to organize feeding with dry food, the amount of which is easier to calculate based on the weight of the dog. There is a version that the first representatives of the breed, the owner Doberman fed fresh meat from zhivodorni, which contributed to their activity and ferocity.
Of course, now the approach to nutrition of dogs has undergone changes, but you can not forget about meat as a source of proteins if you feed your dog with natural food. Remember that on some porridges it is impossible to grow an active dog with the right anatomy and ideal weight. Meat products should be at least 50% in the dog's diet, and preferably if their share reaches 75%. Dobermans can not be overeated, and meat is the most nutritious element for them. Also include in the diet vegetables and vitamin and mineral supplements.
How to choose a puppy?
Often beginning dog breeders think that the pedigree for the puppy is needed only if it is planned to participate in the exhibitions with it. This, of course, so, but the availability of a pedigree is also a guarantee that you get a dog with a typical character for the breed. Buying such a puppy will save you from the risk of buying a cowardly or super-aggressive Doberman.
The surest way to acquire a good Doberman is to communicate with breeders on forums, to visit, at least virtually, several nurseries. These actions will help you decide the choice. By the way, in this way you can always find puppies at a more affordable price, even among elite litters.
In responsible breeders, all puppies should be healthy. If they observe any deviations from the standard or there are other problematic points, the breeder must warn about this. If you buy a puppy just by an announcement from strangers, it's better to take an experienced person with you, who will help you choose a puppy.
It is interesting that there are conflicting opinions about the choice of sex. Некоторые владельцы этой породы отмечают, что кобели более доминантны и агрессивны, другие, наоборот, наделяют этими качествами сук. Видимо, здесь большую роль играет воспитание и наследственность, поэтому при выборе пола лучше руководствуйтесь своими предпочтениями.
Цена щенков добермана
Щенки доберманов с пакетом документов стоят от 15 до 45 тысяч рублей . Средняя цена на щенка без документов составляет 8 тысяч рублей .